Lessons: 1L - First Year Lesson Topics

This lesson can be used in a Family Law or Constitutional Law course, as preparation for class or as review for an exam on the topic of Abortion.

45 minutes
FAM26

This lesson deals with one aspect of contract formation, acceptance. Acceptance is the manifestation of assent that is made by the offeree in response to an offer. In this lesson, you will learn how a party can accept an offer at common law. The lesson takes up issues such as the manner of acceptance, who can accept, silence as acceptance, rejection and counter-offer. The lesson ends with a short analysis exercise on the subject of acceptance.

1 hour
CON61

This is one in a series of lessons on accomplice liability. In earlier lessons, we examined how accomplices were classified under the common law and the Model Penal Code. In addition, we examined the mens rea requirement for accomplice liability. In this lesson, we continue the discussion by examining the actus reus requirement of accomplice liability. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and who wish to further refine their knowledge and understanding of the topic.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
CRIM28

At common law, a distinction was made between the perpetrator of a crime, and the perpetrator's accomplices. In this lesson, we examine the common law definitions that applied to accomplices, and modern approaches to complicity, including the Model Penal Code. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and who wish to refine their knowledge and understanding.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
CRIM35

This lesson continues our discussion of accomplice liability. In a prior lesson, we examined how the common law and the Model Penal Code classified various types of accomplices. In another prior lesson, we examined the actus reus requirement for accomplice liability. In this lesson, we continue the discussion by focusing on the mens rea requirement for accomplice liability. The lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and who wish to refine their understanding and knowledge of the topic.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
CRIM36

This lesson explores discharge of a debt by accord and satisfaction. It can be run either as an introduction to the study of accord and satisfaction or as a review after you have completed your study.

1 hour
CON68

This exercise provides an introduction to the act requirement. In particular, it addresses the definition of "act," voluntariness, liability for omissions (failures to act), and possession offenses.

40 minutes
CRIM15

This lesson provides an introductory overview of the law of adverse possession, and lays a foundation for the succeeding lessons that focus upon specific portions of the adverse possession doctrine. This lesson includes: an explanation of the historical origins of adverse possession doctrine; an explanation of the policy justifications for modern adverse possession law; a brief discussion of the elements required to establish title by adverse possession at common law, as well as under typical modern statutory reforms; and a discussion of the basic mechanics of the adverse possession doctrine (including types of claims, i.e., claims with and without color of title; the role of adverse possession as a statute of limitation upon possessory actions; and the quality of title obtained by adverse possession).

35 minutes
PPL15

This lesson focuses upon the concept of "color of title" and the role that it plays in the resolution of adverse possession disputes. The lesson should assist students in understanding: the distinction between claims of possession with color of title and without color of title; the significance of color of title as a basis (in some states) for shortening the statutory period for adverse possession; and the significance of color of title as a prerequisite for a claim of title by constructive adverse possession.

45 minutes
PPL22

This lesson focuses upon the requirements that claims of adverse possession must be exclusive and continuous (without interruption) for the applicable statutory period. This lesson should assist students to understand the following: the rationales behind these requirements and how they relate to the other elements of the common law adverse possession rule; how to distinguish "exclusive" possession from "nonexclusive" possession; what conduct by the possessor or the true owner is sufficient to interrupt the continuity of possession; the extent to which successive periods of adverse possession may be "tacked" together to satisfy the applicable statutory period; and the extent to which the applicable statutory period may be "tolled" (thereby preventing the statutory period from running against the true owner).

1 hour
PPL20

This lesson focuses upon the requirement that an adverse possession claim must be based upon possession that is sufficiently "hostile" and "under claim of right." This lesson addresses the following topics: the rationale behind the "hostile/under claim of right" requirement and how it relates to the other elements of the common law adverse possession rule; the significance of "permission to occupy land" under adverse possession doctrine, and how to distinguish between permissive and hostile claims; and the legal standards by which differing courts have evaluated the hostility of a possessor’s claim, either by reference to the possessor’s actions (objectively), or state of mind (subjectively).

50 minutes
PPL10

This lesson focuses upon the requirement that an adverse possession claim must be based upon possession that is sufficiently "open and notorious." The lesson discusses the rationale behind the "open and notorious" requirement and the way in which the "open and notorious" requirement relates to the other elements of the common law adverse possession rule. The lesson includes problems designed to test student understanding of this element in a variety of different factual settings, including "open lands" (large, unenclosed parcels of land not suitable for cultivation or development), subsurface rights, and minor boundary line encroachments.

1 hour
PPL11

This lesson focuses upon a number of doctrines that are closely related to adverse possession of land. It includes a discussion of the following doctrines: agreed boundaries; mutual recognition and acquiescence; estoppel; good faith improvement; and the extent to which one can establish title to chattels by adverse possession (or by the operation of finding statutes). The lesson is in "lecturette" format. Each doctrine is introduced with a brief, slide-accompanied lecture introduction, and the lesson concludes with a series of review questions designed to reinforce student understanding of the material introduced in the lecturette.

40 minutes
PPL46

This lesson concludes the set of lessons on adverse possession with a series of review questions (including true-false, multiple choice, and essay questions) to test overall student understanding of the various elements of the adverse possession standard, as explored in the earlier lessons. This lesson may prove most helpful to students when reviewing the doctrine of adverse possession as part of their exam preparation.

1.25 hours
PPL32

A Question and Answer session with Prof. McFarland, author of several of CALI's lessons in Tort Law and Civil Procedure. Prof. McFarland has been teaching for over 30 years. His comments in this podcast about the first semester of law school focus on the Socratic method, preparing for class, note-taking during class, class participation, "riding out" that "lost at sea" feel common during the first few weeks of law school, the appropriate use of study aids, advice about law school exams, and general advice on doing well in law school.

Download:
14:56 minutes
LCS05P

This lesson will introduce you to the process of researching federal agency decisions. You should expect to encounter: overview of agency regulatory powers; types of agency decisions; how to find them; how to update them; and their precedential value.

In this lesson, it will be assumed that you are comfortable with the concepts involved in researching judicial court opinions and agency regulations.

40 minutes
LR57

This lesson takes a look at one type of agreement that lacks consideration: gift promises. Consideration is often described as the bargained-for-exchange. The bargained-for-exchange is what induces the making of the promise by the offeror and the promise induces the furnishing of the consideration by the offeree. Consideration is the ordinary means for justifying the enforcement of the promises by the parties. Where a gift is made, bargained-for-exchange is lacking and the promises are not enforceable. This lesson sets out the basic requisites for identifying and evaluating a gift promise. The general attributes of consideration are covered in other lessons.

40 minutes
CON71

This lesson takes a look at two types of agreements that lack consideration: those supported by past consideration or moral obligation. Consideration is often described as the bargained-for-exchange. The bargained-for-exchange is what induces the making of the promise by the offeror and the promise induces the furnishing of the consideration by the offeree. Consideration is the ordinary means for justifying the enforcement of the promises by the parties. Where consideration was given in the past or the promisee is only morally obligated to make the promise, bargained-for-exchange is lacking and the promises are not enforceable.

This lesson sets out the basic requisites for identifying and evaluating those promises that are only supported by past consideration or moral obligation. The general attributes of consideration are covered in other lessons.

50 minutes
CON72

This lesson will help you master legal citation using the ALWD Citation Manual: A Professional System of Citation (Fourth Edition).

There are two versions of this lesson available from CALI. Please make sure that you are working through the version assigned to you by your professor. Each version has the same coverage. This is the single-lesson version. The other version takes the original lesson and divides it into four parts, with each part being a separate lesson.

Throughout this lesson, you will be asked to read specific portions of the ALWD Citation Manual. You then will be asked to complete interactive exercises that will test your understanding of and ability to apply the various citation rules. Topics covered include typeface, spacing abbreviations, capitalization, ordinal numbers, pinpoint pages and section numbers, full and short citation formats, cases, statutes, books, legal periodicals, introductory signals, and quotations. You may complete the entire lesson at one time or complete segments as you cover various parts of the Manual in class or on your own.

between two and five hours.
LWR10

This lesson will help you master legal citation using the ALWD Citation Manual: A Professional System of Citation (Fourth Edition).

There are two versions of this lesson available from CALI. Please make sure that you are working through the version assigned to you by your professor. Each version has the same coverage. The "original" version is a single lesson. This version takes the original lessons and divides it into four parts, with each part being a separate lesson.

You should start your study with this lesson, Part 1.

Throughout the ALWD lesson, you will be asked to read specific portions of the ALWD Citation Manual. You then will be asked to complete interactive exercises that will test your understanding of and ability to apply the various citation rules. Topics covered in this part include typeface, spacing abbreviations, capitalization, ordinal numbers, pinpoint pages and section numbers, and full and short citation formats. Other lessons cover cases, statutes, books, legal periodicals (Part 2), and introductory signals, and quotations (Part 3).

25 minutes
LWR10_01

This lesson has been revised for Fall 2010 to reflect the 4th edition of the ALWD Citation Manual.

This lesson will help you master legal citation using the ALWD Citation Manual: A Professional System of Citation (Fourth Edition).

There are two versions of this lesson available from CALI. Please make sure that you are working through the version assigned to you by your professor. Each version has the same coverage. The "original" version is a single lesson. This version takes the original lessons and divides it into four parts, with each part being a separate lesson.

You should start your study with Part 1.

Throughout the ALWD lesson, you will be asked to read specific portions of the ALWD Citation Manual. You then will be asked to complete interactive exercises that will test your understanding of and ability to apply the various citation rules. Topics covered in this part include cover cases, statutes, books, and legal periodicals. Other lessons include typeface, spacing abbreviations, capitalization, ordinal numbers, pinpoint pages and section numbers, and full and short citation formats (Part 1), and introductory signals, and quotations (Part 3).

45 minutes
LWR10_02

This lesson will help you master legal citation using the ALWD Citation Manual: A Professional System of Citation (Fourth Edition).

There are two versions of this lesson available from CALI. Please make sure that you are working through the version assigned to you by your professor. Each version has the same coverage. The "original" version is a single lesson. This version takes the original lessons and divides it into four parts, with each part being a separate lesson.

You should start your study with Part 1.

Throughout the ALWD lesson, you will be asked to read specific portions of the ALWD Citation Manual. You then will be asked to complete interactive exercises that will test your understanding of and ability to apply the various citation rules. Topics covered in this part include introductory signals, and quotations. Other lessons typeface, spacing abbreviations, capitalization, ordinal numbers, pinpoint pages and section numbers, and full and short citation formats (Part 1) and cover cases, statutes, books, legal periodicals (Part 2).

30 minutes
LWR10_03

This lesson will help you master legal citation using the ALWD Citation Manual: A Professional System of Citation (Fourth Edition).

There are two versions of this lesson available from CALI. Please make sure that you are working through the version assigned to you by your professor. Each version has the same coverage. The "original" version is a single lesson. This version takes the original lessons and divides it into four parts, with each part being a separate lesson.

You should start your study with Part 1.

Throughout the ALWD lesson, you will be asked to read specific portions of the ALWD Citation Manual. You then will be asked to complete interactive exercises that will test your understanding of and ability to apply the various citation rules. This part is a Final Quiz reviewing material covered in the three other lessons. Other lessons cover the topics of typeface, spacing abbreviations, capitalization, ordinal numbers, pinpoint pages and section numbers, and full and short citation formats (Part 1) citation of cases, statutes, books, legal periodicals (Part 2), and introductory signals, and quotations (Part 3).

30 - 45 minutes
LWR10_04

This is the second in a series of lessons on culpability requirements under the Model Penal Code (MPC). This Lessonette® exercise, which assumes students are familiar with the basic requirement that every material element have a state of mind, addresses the state of mind that applies to each element when one or more states of mind are contained in an MPC criminal statute. The lesson introduces students to the various types of elements in MPC statutes and to the general rule, found in § 2.02(4), that where a state of mind is specified, it applies to all material elements unless a contrary purpose plainly appears. The lesson affords students the opportunity to practice the default rules relating to states of mind on mock statutes and to learn how the legislature expresses a contrary purpose.

35 minutes
CRIM23

This lesson is an introduction to the American Law Reports (ALR) and is intended for use by students in introductory legal research classes. The goal is to give you an understanding of the features of the resource, the best methods for using it, and an understanding of when to use it.

30 minutes
LWR21

This lesson has been revised to reflect the December 1, 2006 amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, as they were re-written effective December 1, 2007.

This exercise is designed to help train beginning students in the analysis of judicial opinions. The student is asked to agree or disagree with assertions about a diversity jurisdiction case (Baker v. Keck). The computer responds to the student’s answers by evaluating them or asking further questions.

1.5 hours
CIV05

This brief lesson will familiarize the student with the basic parts of a case (i.e., the written decision of a court published in a print reporter).

15 minutes
LR47

This lesson explores the contours of anticipatory repudiation, including the repudiating promisor's ability to retract his repudiation, the nonrepudiating promisee's right to demand adequate assurances of performance, and the effect of the promisor's repudiation on the promisee's obligation to perform.

1 hour
CON36

This is a game to test your memory of where decisions from district courts in each state would be appealed.

5 minutes
GAME01

This CALI lesson will introduce you to the ethical considerations associated with writing appellate briefs. The lesson is intended for a first year law student currently taking a legal writing course. No previous knowledge of ethics is presumed.

A series of explanations and questions will guide you through a basic introduction to the regulation of attorney conduct. You will then examine how ethical considerations influence the lawyering skills associated with the preparation of appellate briefs.

45 minutes
LWR42

This lesson is designed to familiarize students with Arizona's primary legal sources. It will also provide a basic understanding of how to use these sources in conducting legal research. No prerequisite knowledge is required to follow this lesson.

1 hour
LR48

This lesson introduces students to secondary resources for Arizona legal researchers.

30-45 minutes
LR74

Unavailable - Currently being revised

This lesson covers the Arkansas constitution, statutes, legislative history, cases, courts and court rules, and administrative materials. It was designed for those who have a general knowledge of researching primary legal sources.

45 minutes
LR98

This lesson identifies the law of the intentional tort of assault, and challenges the student to apply unusual fact situations to that law. The exercise explores the tort of assault as it has developed to cover modern settings.

45 minutes
TRT18

This lesson covers assignment of contract rights and delegation of contract duties. You can run it either as an introduction to the topic or as a review after you have studied it.

1.5 hours
CON66

A plaintiff who voluntarily assumes a risk of harm cannot recover for the negligent or reckless conduct that causes the harm: that is known as assumption of risk. It is a complete defense. This lesson explores the defense, which together with contributory negligence has been part of negligence law for more than a century-and-a-half. The border between the two classic negligence defenses is sometimes confusing, so questions navigate the differences. Also, the lesson considers the continuing vitality of the defense of assumption of risk when contributory negligence is rapidly being replaced by comparative negligence.

1 hour
TRT40

This is an introduction to federal and state attorney general materials.

30 minutes
LR44

Basic Future Interests is a follow-up tutorial exercise to The Estate System. It deals with the two major classes of future interests, those retained by transferors and those created in third persons. Emphasis is given to distinguishing among the various kinds of vested remainders and contingent remainders, as well as to distinguishing between remainders and executory interests. The lesson also provides the primary treatment of the defeasible fee simple estates, with emphasis on the future interests that tailor them.

This lesson is now broken into 10 separate parts available separately:

3 hours
PPL05

This lesson is part of a series of exercises covering Basic Future Interests. While the 10 lessons comprising this series can be worked in any sequence, the lessons do to some degree build on each other. Thus, it is suggested that students work them in order.

The 10 lessons are:


Students should complete the Basic Estate System lesson prior to working through this lesson and series.

20 minutes
PPL05_01

This lesson is part of a series of exercises covering Basic Future Interests. While the 10 lessons comprising this series can be worked in any sequence, the lessons do to some degree build on each other. Thus, it is suggested that students work them in order.

The 10 lessons are:


Students should complete the Basic Estate System lesson prior to working through this lesson and series.

20 minutes
PPL05_02

This lesson is part of a series of exercises covering Basic Future Interests. While the 10 lessons comprising this series can be worked in any sequence, the lessons do to some degree build on each other. Thus, it is suggested that students work them in order.

The 10 lessons are:


Students should complete the Basic Estate System lesson prior to working through this lesson and series.

25 minutes
PPL05_03

This lesson is part of a series of exercises covering Basic Future Interests. While the 10 lessons comprising this series can be worked in any sequence, the lessons do to some degree build on each other. Thus, it is suggested that students work them in order.

The 10 lessons are:


Students should complete the Basic Estate System lesson prior to working through this lesson and series.

25 minutes
PPL05_04

This lesson is part of a series of exercises covering Basic Future Interests. While the 10 lessons comprising this series can be worked in any sequence, the lessons do to some degree build on each other. Thus, it is suggested that students work them in order.

The 10 lessons are:


Students should complete the Basic Estate System lesson prior to working through this lesson and series.

25 minutes
PPL05_05

This lesson is part of a series of exercises covering Basic Future Interests. While the 10 lessons comprising this series can be worked in any sequence, the lessons do to some degree build on each other. Thus, it is suggested that students work them in order.

The 10 lessons are:


Students should complete the Basic Estate System lesson prior to working through this lesson and series.

30 minutes
PPL05_06

This lesson is part of a series of exercises covering Basic Future Interests. While the 10 lessons comprising this series can be worked in any sequence, the lessons do to some degree build on each other. Thus, it is suggested that students work them in order.

The 10 lessons are:


Students should complete the Basic Estate System lesson prior to working through this lesson and series.

15 minutes
PPL05_07

This lesson is part of a series of exercises covering Basic Future Interests. While the 10 lessons comprising this series can be worked in any sequence, the lessons do to some degree build on each other. Thus, it is suggested that students work them in order.

The 10 lessons are:


Students should complete the Basic Estate System lesson prior to working through this lesson and series.

30 minutes
PPL05_08

This lesson is part of a series of exercises covering Basic Future Interests. While the 10 lessons comprising this series can be worked in any sequence, the lessons do to some degree build on each other. Thus, it is suggested that students work them in order.

The 10 lessons are:


Students should complete the Basic Estate System lesson prior to working through this lesson and series.

30 minutes
PPL05_09

This lesson is part of a series of exercises covering Basic Future Interests. While the 10 lessons comprising this series can be worked in any sequence, the lessons do to some degree build on each other. Thus, it is suggested that students work them in order.

The 10 lessons are:


Students should complete the Basic Estate System lesson prior to working through this lesson and series.

30 minutes
PPL05_10

This lesson will cover the basic, common law elements of defamation. The discussion will review the defamatory statement, truth, and publication concerning the plaintiff. The lesson will also cover the basic issues in privileges. Although substantial Constitutional issues now exist with defamation, those problems will be covered in a separate lesson.

50 minutes
TRT19

The Right of Privacy is actually four different torts. This lesson will cover the basic elements of Commercial Appropriation, Intrusion, Public Disclosure, and False Light. Although it is necessary to make references to the Constitutional issues raised with these claims, that issue will be discussed in more detail in a separate lesson.

40 minutes
TRT26

This is a Lessonette® exercise on battered woman syndrome with respect to the defense of self-defense. Over the last few decades, there has developed in the legal literature a recognition of this, and other similar syndromes, in the context of homicide cases. The situation of an abused person who kills the abuser raises questions about the basis for a defense of self-defense in circumstances that might not easily fit into the traditional self-defense mold. Though courts allow the defense in many cases, the invocation of the defense still presents problems in certain situations. The purpose of this lesson is to explore those varying circumstances and the issues raised with respect to the possibility of a defendant invoking the defense of self-defense.

The focus of this lesson is on battered women, but there are others who might be identified as qualifying for a defense on the same theory. Included could be battered husbands, elderly parents, children, and so forth. Thus, this lesson will explore a number of the issues involved in the invocation of self-defense by such persons and to allow the student to test his or her understanding of how the defense works in such circumstances. The lesson explores when and how the defense can be invoked in various scenarios involving abused persons, and also considers the use of experts and jury instructions.

The lesson assumes a beginner's understanding of self-defense principles. However, working the lesson will also serve to enhance that understanding.

40 minutes
CRIM19

Battery Basics is an introduction and initial exploration of the intentional tort of battery. It is designed primarily for students who want to test their basic knowledge of the tort, or who spent little or no time on intentional torts in class. Battery Basics identifies the elements of battery, requires application to some common fact situations, and responds to common misconceptions about the tort.

35 minutes
TRT10

Battery Puzzlers is one of two lessons available from CALI on the intentional tort of battery. The other lesson Battery Basics, is designed for students who will spend little time on battery in their classes or are uncomfortable with their understanding of the tort. It is designed to provide a solid understanding of battery. This lesson, Battery Puzzlers, is for students who are already familiar with the tort and who want to deepen their understanding and analysis of battery. It asks questions at the borders of the tort and is designed to stimulate thinking about battery in new ways. It also requires students to apply the principles of the old tort of battery to today's new fact situations. Battery Puzzlers asks the puzzling questions that have stumped students about battery over the years.

30 minutes
TRT12

This lesson deals with the problem created by the Battle of the Forms. At common law, the mirror image rule requires an acceptance to be exactly like the offer. The rule is reversed under the Uniform Commercial Code, however. Under UCC § 2-207, an acceptance is still an acceptance even though it states different or additional terms from the offer. This lesson will explore the effect of such different or additional terms and when they are operative. This lesson can be worked as an introduction to the Battle of the Forms or as a review. This lesson may be a more in-depth study of UCC § 2-207 than many first year contracts courses require. However, prior to working this lesson, you should have an understanding of offer, acceptance and mutual assent.

1.5 - 2.0 hours
CON64

In this podcast, Prof. Martin provides advice to students studying acceptance, the mirror image rule and the problem of the Battle of the
Forms. Prof. Martin's podcast expands on her coverage of this topic in her CALI lesson Battle of the Forms (UCC 2-207).

Download:
9:29 minutes
CON64P

Traditional contract law classifies contracts into bilateral and unilateral contracts. Bilateral contracts are those involving promises made by all parties, whereas unilateral contracts involve promises made by only one of the parties. This lesson explores the distinction between bilateral contracts (where both parties make promises) and unilateral ones (where only one party makes a promise) and the effect on the obligations of the parties resulting from the classification. This lesson ends with an analysis exercise on unilateral and bilateral contracts.

30-40 minutes
CON45

This lesson is designed to familiarize law students with legal materials that can be used when dealing with juries. It covers jury instructions, voir dire, and jury verdicts.

30 minutes
LR123

These lessons have been temporaily removed for revisions. Thank you for your patience. CALI


Effective December 1, 2006, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure were amended to reflect changes in discovery resulting from the electronic storage of information. CALI's lessons do not yet reflect these amendments. As each lesson is revised to reflect the amended rules, the lesson's catalog description will be updated to enable students and faculty to easily tell which lessons include the amended rules.

This game introduces students to pre-trial discovery under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The discovery issues arise from the mass tort litigation begun in the aftermath of the Buffalo Creek flooding disaster of 1972. This game assumes the jurisdiction has not opted-out of the Rule 26 initial and pre-trial disclosure requirements.

In addition to problems about legal entitlement to discovery, the game asks players about their obligations to disclose information without awaiting a discovery request from their opponents. In many questions, after a description of potential items for disclosure or discovery, the player in possession of the information is asked if he or she wants to disclose it. Next, the receiving player is asked if he or she wants to seek discovery of the information in questions or additional information. Attorneys must decide whether the rules require disclosure of the items in question; whether to resist discovery; and must provide reasons for failing to disclose or resisting a discovery request. The computer plays the roles of the clerk of the court (to file motions) and Judge K. K. Hall (to rule on the motions and offer observations about the player’s performance). Players must also consider time, the cost of discovery litigation, the cost of compliance with requests, and their reputations.

1.5 hours
CIV15

This lesson will introduce you to all of the types of primary sources you will encounter when researching California law. Topics include the Constitution, Statutes and Codes, administrative law, court system, and researching cases in California. No prior knowledge of California legal materials is required.

1.5 hours
LR88

This lesson will serve as an introduction to some of the secondary resources available in the field of California law. The topics covered include the online and print formats of treatises, practice guides and the state legal encyclopedia. No prior knowledge of California law or legal materials is required, however students should have a basic understanding of building search queries with Westlaw and Lexis.

This lesson may be worked in two parts. Part one deals with California treatises and the legal encyclopedia. Part two covers California practice guides.

75 minutes
LR82

This exercise provides an overview of the concept of causation. Factual cause is distinguished from legal cause, and causation in general from mens rea and attempt. Specific issues covered include simultaneous causes, different victim, different manner, and different injury.

35 minutes
CRIM16

This exercise begins by illustrating the distinction between cause in fact and legal or proximate cause and then utilizes questions intended to familiarize the student with the but for or sine qua non test and the substantial factor test. The exercise also covers issues relating to concurrent cause dilemmas and problems in identifying which harm was caused to the plaintiff by multiple negligent defendants.

30 minutes
TRT11

This exercise builds upon the tutorial entitled Causation in Fact and that lesson should be completed prior to this exercise. In this exercise, the evidentiary burdens of proof are considered in relation to the use of direct and circumstantial evidence and the use of expert testimony. The exercises illuminate issues surrounding problems of proving who or what caused the plaintiff's harm. Burden shifting devices employed by courts in special situations are also considered.

40 minutes
TRT17

One of the rules that limits a plaintiff's recovery for breach of contract is the requirement that damages must be proven to a reasonable certainty. This lesson explores that principle. The lesson can be run either as an introduction to certainty or as a review after you have completed your study.

30 minutes
CON57

This lesson is intended to be used as both an introduction to Child Custody Jurisdiction and as a review for students who have already studied the material.

1 hour
FAM10

This lesson covers the traditional negligence standard of care for children. It, of course, deals with the exceptional circumstances of when the adult standard applies to children. In addition, the lesson covers other diminished capacity examples, such as mental illness, physical disability, and intoxication.

30 minutes
TRT09

Prof. Burnham, author of many CALI lessons and podcasts, discusses choice of law in contract cases. Choice of law occurs when there is an issue of which jurisdiction’s law the courts will apply to a substantive issue. Choice of law is not a question of where a case will be heard, but instead what law applies when hearing the case. Prof. Burnham discusses how parties can influence what law will apply as well as what restrictions apply when doing so. Also discussed are the older and revised versions of UCC Art. 1, specifically the requirement of a reasonable connection with the jurisdiction and determining whether the contract has a significant relationship with the jurisdiction.

Download:
9:25 minutes
CON70P

This lesson is second in a series that takes a look at formation of agreements governed by the U.N. Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG). The CISG provides a uniform set of rules for international sales contracts where the parties are located in different signatory countries. There are 11 separate provisions on contract formation under the CISG. This lesson sets out the basic requisites for determining whether an offer exists, when it is accepted and how to address a battle of the forms if the CISG applies. The general attributes of domestic contracts and other CISG contracts are covered in other lessons.

45 minutes
CON75

This lesson is third in a series that takes a look at performance of agreements governed by the U.N. Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG). The CISG provides a uniform set of rules for international sales contracts where the parties are located in different signatory countries. There are 11 separate provisions on contract formation under the CISG. This lesson sets out the basic obligations of sellers and buyers, as well as looking at the ICC's Incoterms and how they affect the seller's obligations. The general attributes of domestic contracts and other CISG contract issues are covered in other lessons.

1 hour
CON76

This lesson is first in a series that takes a look at the basics of agreements governed by the U.N. Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG). The CISG provides a uniform set of rules for international sales contracts where the parties are located in different signatory countries. While some of the rules parallel those under the common law and Article 2 of the U.C.C., many are different. This lesson sets out the basic requisites for determining when the CISG applies and evaluating contracts governed by the CISG. The general attributes of domestic contracts and other CISG contracts are covered in other lessons.

1 hour
CON74

This exercise is to help users learn the rules of proper citation form for briefs and legal memoranda. It does not deal with proper citation form for law review footnotes. It is divided into three sections: Section A deals with cases, B with statutory materials and C with secondary authorities.

Three types of questions are included within each section. The first type provides the user with information about a source and requires her to choose the appropriate citation from four possibilities. The second question type presents a citation and requires the student to determine whether the citation is correct and if not to identify the element of the citation that is incorrect. For each incorrect response to the first two types of questions, an explanation is provided, along with reference to the appropriate rule in A Uniform System of Citation. The third and most difficult type of question presents the user with the necessary information and requires him to write the citation. The correct citation is then displayed so that the student may compare his answer with the correct citation.

This lesson is revised to reflect the 19th ed. of The Bluebook.

1.0 - 1.5 hours
LWR01

This lesson covers the area traditionally known as "negligence per se." The problem of when can a civil or criminal statute be used as the standard of care in negligence cases is the primary matter discussed. The lesson gives some special attention to the "Dram Shop" example.

40 minutes
TRT16

This CALI lesson will introduce you to the ethical considerations associated with writing client advice letters. The lesson is intended for a first year law student currently taking a legal writing course. No previous knowledge of ethics is presumed.

A series of explanations and questions will guide you through a basic introduction to the regulation of attorney conduct. You will then examine how ethical considerations influence the lawyering skills associated with the preparation of advice letters.

30 minutes
LWR44

This lesson tries to explain Coasean irrelevance (which is often known as the "Coase Theorem").

45 minutes to 3 hours
LCS02

This lesson will introduce you to how codes are created, how they're organized, how they're published, and what it all means for your legal research. It is intended for first-year law students, or anyone who needs a refresher on the basics of this topic. This lesson assumes that you are familiar with how statutes are passed and how they're first published, either from your own knowledge or from the CALI lesson Introduction to State and Federal Statutes. For one of the questions in this lesson, you should have your Bluebook or ALWD Citation Manual handy.

20 minutes
LWR16

This lesson is intended to familiarize the user with Colorado primary legal research materials. The lesson focuses on primary source material including: the Colorado Constitution, cases and digests, statutes, legislative history materials, executive department documents, and local legislation. No prior knowledge of Colorado legal research is necessary to follow this lesson. While this lesson is aimed primarily at first year law students who will be learning about these materials for the first time, each section may be used independently to brush up on Colorado-specific legal research skills.

1 hour
LR81

This lesson is intended to familiarize the user with Colorado secondary legal research materials. The lesson focuses on secondary source material including: Colorado Practice, treatises, periodicals, CLEs and form books. No prior knowledge of Colorado legal research is necessary to follow this lesson. While this lesson is aimed primarily at first year law students who will be learning about these materials for the first time, each section may be used independently to brush up on Colorado-specific legal research skills.

1 hour
LR92

Focusing on the Clean Water Act and the Endangered Species Act, this lesson gives a brief overview of the ways in which federal environmental and natural resources law can raise issues regarding the federal government's constitutional authority to regulate pursuant to the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution. In particular, it looks at the possible limitations on the federal government's Commerce Clause authority as a result of the U.S. Supreme Court's 1995 decision in United States v. Lopez and as a result of federalism and land use considerations.

This lesson consists of 12 questions. Students should have some familiarity with the federal Endangered Species Act and the federal Clean Water Act before beginning this lesson.

45-60 minutes
ENV16

The goal of this lesson is to introduce you to the basics of conducting company and industry research. Company research is the process of gathering information about a specific company. Once you have information about a company, you may need to know how that company is faring within its industry. Industry is a group of companies that produce similar products or provide similar services. Companies within an industry can be compared to one another or an analysis of the industry itself can be done to see how it is faring.

45 minutes
LWR17

This lesson considers the differences between the various comparative fault schemes found in different jurisdictions. It begins by considering in what respects the plaintiff's conduct is being compared with the defendant's conduct. Next, it introduces students to the three main types of comparative fault schemes before going on to illustrate when and how they lead to different results, with particular reference to aggregation of defendants' fault.

50 minutes
TRT07

This is a basic lesson covering the common law doctrine of concurrence. At common law, crimes required not only an actus reus and a mens rea but concurrence of the two. Through use of scenarios involving the common law crimes of murder, robbery, burglary and larceny (which are briefly introduced), the requirements for concurrence are explored. In addition, also through the use of scenarios, the doctrine is distinguished from the related doctrines of causation and mistake. Finally, concurrence as to attendant circumstances is also addressed. After completing this lesson, the student should have a working knowledge of the common law doctrine of concurrence and some understanding of how modern common law jurisdictions deal with the issues raised by this doctrine. The lesson contains practice questions in a separate section that can be done independently of the lesson itself.

25 minutes
CRIM26

This lesson explores the concept of conditions in the law of contracts. It distinguishes promises from conditions, discusses the various kinds of conditions, and explains ways the courts relieve parties from the harsh effect of conditions. The lesson concludes with two sample exam questions.

1.5 hours
CON20

This lesson explores the various ways in which the criminal law considers victim consent. Topics include consent as negating an offense element, consent as justification, effective consent, and limitations on consent as a defense.

35 minutes
CRIM32

This interactive exercise addresses the topic of consent as a privilege or defense to various intentional tort claims. It begins with a consideration of how consent is determined to exist and then explores various applications of the defense in contexts such as medical encounters and sporting events. Consideration is given to how the courts have utilized the concept of consent in balancing the competing interests of the plaintiff and the defendant in relation to overarching policy goals. Related exercises which the student may wish to consider are (1) Informed Consent and (2) Assumption of Risk.

40 minutes
TRT39

This lesson addresses a number of issues involving consideration, including whether there was a bargain, whether there is consideration for the settlement of a claim, and whether one of the promises was illusory. You should run it after you have run the lesson on Consideration: The Basics of Consideration and the Bargain Theory.

1 hour
CON73

This lesson takes a look at the basic aspects of the contractual element of Consideration. In a typical transaction, the consideration (described as a bargained-for-exchange) is what induces the making of the promise by the offeror. In turn, the promise induces the furnishing of the consideration by the offeree. Consideration is the ordinary means for justifying the enforcement of the promises by the parties. This lesson sets out the basic requisites for establishing consideration. The general attributes of formation of contracts (mutual assent, offer and acceptance) are covered in other lessons.

40 minutes + analysis exercise
CON67

This lesson discusses the role of federal preemption in the implementation of environmental law. Specifically, when do federal environmental and natural resources statutes preempt, or displace, state laws on similar subjects? When are states free to enact their own environmental protections? What is the relationship between federal environmental law and state torts?

This lesson consists of 15 questions and is intended to work both as a review for students who have already studied these issues and as introduction for students new to the concept of federal preemption in environmental law.

30-45 minutes
ENV21

This lesson assumes the basic issues in defamation have already been covered. Before working with this lesson, the lessons on Basic Issues in Defamation and Privileges and Libel and Slander should have already been reviewed. The material here will use that basic information to study the Constitutional issues that now control defamation. Among those issues are public and private figures, actual malice, burdens of proof, and damages.

50 minutes
TRT33

The Right of Privacy, much like defamation, raises serious Constitutional issues. Those issues arise, primarily, with the tort of Public Disclosure and False Light. This lesson discusses the details raised by that Constitutional problem.

25 minutes
TRT24

This lesson is intended as an overview of Constitutional Law principles that are important in Family Law. It can be used at the beginning of the Family Law course as a refresher of Constitutional Law. It can also be used during the course to clarify general constitutional doctrine. This lesson is related to two other lessons regarding constitutional aspects of Family Law.

30 minutes
FAM12

This lesson is intended as an overview of Constitutional Rights that are important in Family Law. It can be used at the beginning of the Family Law course as a refresher, or during the course to clarify general doctrine, or at the end of the course as review.

This lesson has two related lessons. Constitutional Powers and Structures Review for Family Law is an overview of the "structures" rather than the "rights" portions of Constitutional Law. The Constitutional Aspects of Family Law is a more extensive lesson which examines the constitutional dimensions of specific areas such as marriage, divorce, parenting, procreation, contraception, sexuality, and other issues.

30- 45 minutes
FAM15

This lesson is an examination of the constitutional law aspects of Family Law. It builds upon lessons which provide a review of Constitutional Law in the Family Law context, but is much more detailed. It is intended as a supplement and review of constitutional doctrine as it occurs in specific Family Law areas such as marriage, divorce, parenting, procreation, sexuality, the rights of minors, and end-of life issues.

60 - 90 minutes
FAM19

This exercise provides a general overview of the Eighth Amendment as it applies to substantive criminal law. It outlines the Amendment's potential scope as well as its actual reach, as defined by the U.S. Supreme Court. Procedural criminal law (and the Court's capital punishment jurisprudence in particular) is ignored, except insofar as it bears on substantive criminal law or helps to define the Amendment's scope.

35 minutes
CRIM08

In this exercise, students get an overview of the principle of legality. Legality is divided into four subtopics: legislativity, retroactivity, vagueness, and lenity, which are addressed in turn. Particular attention is paid to the following issues: constitutional foundations; applicability to the states; applicability to the making or the interpretation of criminal laws, and to the legislature or the judiciary; applicability to criminal and civil law, and to substantive and procedural criminal law in particular.

30 minutes
CRIM09

Note: This lesson uses Flash and is unable to be viewed on a device that does not have the Flash player installed. Scoring for this lesson is also unavailable at this time.

This lesson provides a graphic exploration of the complex and ambiguous placement of the administrative process in our constitutional scheme and the relationship of that process to the legislative, executive and judicial branches.

1 hour
ADM05

This lesson provides a review of the constitutional requirements for standing in federal courts that citizen plaintiffs must fulfill in order to bring environmental citizen suits in the federal courts. These requirements apply to citizen suits brought pursuant to either citizen suit provisions in specific environmental or natural resources statutes, such as the Clean Water Act and the Endangered Species Act, or the federal Administrative Procedure Act.

This lesson assumes that students have already studied standing in their Environmental Law or Administrative Law courses.

45 minutes
ENV18

This lesson introduces students to consumer law research as they assist a hypothetical client "Joe" who is the victim of a used car salesman's sleazy tactics. Students will develop strategies for researching consumer law issues on both state and federal levels. The lesson covers the "major player" consumer law statutes and the agencies empowered by those statutes. Important consumer law treatises, looseleafs, and practitioner resources in both the print and online formats are covered.

30 minutes
LR111

This lesson covers Congress's authority to enact legislation pursuant to the Commerce Clause under the Supreme Court's rulings since 1995.

45 minutes
CST06

This exercise is designed as an introduction for first year Property students to the basic concepts involved in a traditional contract used in a standard real estate transaction.

30-40 minutes
PPL43

This is the second lesson of two designed to introduce the first year law student to the basic concepts involved in a contract for the purchase and sale of real estate.

This lesson is merely a basic introduction to prepare students for a traditional Property class. Therefore, one should not assume that this lesson would enable one to represent oneself or assist another in preparing or examining real estate contracts. Additional law school courses such as Real Estate Finance, Real Property Closing Workshop and the like, along with passing the bar exam, are needed before engaging in such responsibilities.

Furthermore, this lesson presumes the user has completed the first lesson, Contract for Purchase and Sale: Formation and Terms, before using this one.

30-40 minutes
PPL51

This lesson is no longer available. Other lessons cover the material.

This lesson deals with contract formation. Students are given a series of hypothetical problems dealing with basic contract law as reflected in Restatement of Contracts (Second) and the Uniform Commercial Code. Coverage includes: intent to contract, definiteness, options, rejection, revocation, counteroffer, lapse, consideration, promissory estoppel, moral obligations, and accord and satisfaction. The program not only responds with correct and incorrect answers, but also gives feedback regarding underlying reasons for answers. If an incorrect answer is given, the program follows up with additional questions on the topic to improve student understanding.

1.0 - 1.5 hours
CON02

This lesson is no longer available. Other lessons cover the material.

This lesson deals with contract formation. Students are given a series of hypothetical problems dealing with basic contract law as reflected in Restatement of Contracts (Second) and the Uniform Commercial Code. Coverage includes: intent to contract, definiteness, options, rejection, revocation, counteroffer, lapse, consideration, promissory estoppel, moral obligations, and accord and satisfaction. The program not only responds with correct and incorrect answers, but also gives feedback regarding underlying reasons for answers. If an incorrect answer is given, the program follows up with additional questions on the topic to improve student understanding.

45 minutes
CON03

This lesson is designed for first-year contracts students to use prior to class discussion of the topics. The lesson presents a case or a statute and then asks students to respond to questions designed to test their understanding of the text. The immediate reenforcement aids learning and frees up class time for investigating the rationale behind the rules. This work was supported in part by a grant from NCAIR (National Center for Automated Information Research).

Topics include:

  • Expectation Damages
  • Specific Performance
  • Mitigation
  • The cost of Completion
  • Applying Expectation Damages
  • Restitution Damages
  • More Applications of Expectation Damages
  • Substantial Performance / Substantial Breach
  • The Lost Volume Seller
  • Excuse of Performance
  • Reliance Versus Expectation Damages
  • Foreseeability of Damages
  • Liquidated Damages
varies from unit to unit
CON07

This lesson is designed for first-year contracts students to use prior to class discussion of the specific topics. It presents basic rules and definitions, a case or a statute, and then asks questions designed to test their understanding of the text. Each section concludes with a series of review questions.

This lesson covers 17 topics. Due to the lesson's length, it is highly recommended that students work through this lesson over several days. For students who wish to further their understanding of this material, CALI has additional lessons that address each of the topics covered in this lesson.

Topics include:

  • The Expectation Measure
  • Mitigation of Damages
  • Expectation Damages in Sale of Goods
  • Expectation Damages in Sale of Goods: When the Buyer Does Not Cover
  • UCC Damages Rules for Breaching Buyers
  • More UCC Damages Rules for Breaching Buyers
  • Overhead and Profit
  • Proving Damages
  • Reliance Damages
  • Liquidated Damages
  • Specific Performance
  • Cost of Completion
  • Substantial Performance/Substantial Breach
  • Excuse of Performance
  • Foreseeability
9 hours
CON08

Professor Scott Burnham discusses unconscionability, the Williams v. Walker-Thomas case, and reasonable expectations. This podcast is a perfect supplement to Professor Burnham's Unjust Terms (Unconscionability) CALI tutorial.

Download:
7:28 minutes
CON17P

This lesson gives the student familiarity with contributory negligence, a defense to a negligence claim, and also with last clear chance, a "defense" to the defense. While these doctrines today are on the wane, students should be generally familiar with them for a full understanding of negligence and comparative negligence.

45 minutes
TRT38

This lesson explores the cause of action of conversion as a means of compensation for intentional interferences with personal property. It will examine the several components of interest, invasion, conduct and remedy as the conceptual vehicles for study. Each section of the lesson will focus on one of these components, present the theory, and then give the student an opportunity to apply the theory or explore some of its ramifications. The lesson is designed to be comprehensive enough to be assigned without supporting textual assignment or classroom attention to the subject. Although the lesson is free-standing, students may find that completing the lesson on trespass to chattels before working on this lesson will produce more satisfactory results.

In its focus upon tort theory the lesson seeks to avoid immersion into the complexities of substantive property law and commercial law that are often litigated in conversion cases.

A separate lesson on Trespass to Chattels deals with the other cause of action that allows one to recover for harms to personal property.

1.5 hours
TRT46

This lesson gives the basics of copyright and trademark research, including historical background, statutes, regulations, cases, secondary sources, international materials, and current awareness tools.

45 minutes
LR51

This lesson explores the issue of whether, in computing the expectation remedy, the court will award the cost of completion or the diminution in value. The lesson can be run either as an introduction to this aspect of damages or as a review after you have completed your study.

30 minutes
CON51

We are all aware of the perils of poor electronic legal research skills. Whether it is the story of the summer associate who was not asked to return to the plumb job for dipping too deep into the Lexis® service budget or the firm librarian's challenge in negotiating a favorable contract with Westlaw® based upon prolonged use of the program by associates reading the daily New York Times, we have all heard of ways the misuse of electronic legal resources has challenged those engaged in legal practice.

Though Westlaw® and Lexis® service provide us with sophisticated functionality that can ease the pain of legal research, these systems do not necessarily provide the most cost efficient means of conducting research. You may think that using them makes better use of your time, which necessarily results in savings to your clients, but remember, you will bill for the time you invest in electronic researching, in addition to the cost of the research, and if you have not developed a strategy to search effectively, you may incur increased research costs and additional man hours.

This lesson will help you avoid the pitfalls of poor research strategy when using Lexis® service and Westlaw® and briefly introduce you to some cost-saving alternatives.

50 minutes
LR49

This lesson is designed to teach a student about the various types of covenants of title in deeds and the different types of deeds arising from the covenants they contain. Students who are unfamiliar with real covenants are advised to review the CALI lessons related to real covenants before trying this lesson.

45 minutes
PPL63

As with many areas of the law, especially the more complicated ones, there is more than one way to analyze a problem. Law students and attorneys regularly find the study of real covenants and equitable servitudes to be extremely difficult. Casebooks and hornbooks often address more than one topic at a time when dealing with legal materials.

In contrast, to facilitate students' learning and understanding, the series of lessons on real covenants and equitable servitudes provides an approach which breaks the study into more discreet, digestible components. This will not replace the traditional analysis regarding real covenants and servitudes. Rather, by mastering the lessons, students will be better able to understand traditional covenants analyses.

This tutorial is the first in a series of interactive tutorials written to assist the first year law student with a basic introduction to analyzing real covenants, equitable servitudes and similar use restrictions applied to real property. Once the student successfully completes the current lesson, he or she may later use the series of questions throughout this lesson as a preliminary review for a final examination. Also, the student will benefit more from these materials after having successfully completed the exercises addressing easements.

30-40 minutes
PPL55

This lesson is designed to assist the first year Property student with analyzing the numerous potential questions arising when one encounters a real covenant or equitable servitude. The lesson addresses the questions of what might make a validly created covenant or equitable servitude invalid or unenforceable and what factors influence whether a restriction applies to offending conduct.

This tutorial is the second in a series of lessons. To get the maximum benefit of CALI's alternative approach, before using this exercise, students should first complete the lesson on Covenants and Equitable Servitudes: Creation.

As with many areas of the law, especially the more complicated ones, there is more than one way to analyze a problem. Law students and attorneys regularly find the study of real covenants and equitable servitudes to be extremely difficult.

Casebooks and hornbooks often address more than one topic at a time when dealing with topics. In contrast, to facilitate students' learning and understanding, this series of lessons on real covenants and equitable servitudes provides an approach which breaks the study into more discreet, digestible components. This will not replace the traditional analysis regarding real covenants and servitudes. Rather, by mastering the lessons, students will be better able to understand traditional covenants analyses.

30 minutes
PPL56

This lesson is designed to assist the first year Property student in analyzing the various questions arising from one's attempting to enforce real covenants and equitable servitudes. It follows in the order of the analytical process developed in the lesson on creating covenants and addresses the question "What is required for one to be able to enforce a real covenant, equitable servitude or restriction?"

This tutorial is the third in a series of lessons. To get the maximum benefit of CALI's alternative approach, before using this exercise, students should complete the following lessons in order: Covenants, Equitable Servitudes and Restrictions: Creation and Covenants, Equitable Servitudes and Restrictions: Determining Their Validity and Scope.

As with many areas of the law, especially the more complicated ones, there is more than one way to analyze a problem. Law students and attorneys regularly find the study of real covenants and equitable servitudes to be extremely difficult.

Casebooks and hornbooks often address more than one topic at a time when dealing with topics. In contrast, to facilitate students' learning and understanding, this series of lessons on real covenants and equitable servitudes provides an approach which breaks the study into more discreet, digestible components. This will not replace the traditional analysis regarding real covenants and servitudes. Rather, by mastering these lessons, students will be better able to understand traditional covenants analyses.

30-40 minutes
PPL57

This lesson is designed to assist the first year Property student in analyzing the various questions arising from one's attempting to enforce real covenants and equitable servitudes. It follows in the order of the analytical process developed in the lesson on creating covenants and addresses the question "Under what circumstances might one who is not the original promisor be liable for not performing the promise?"

This tutorial is only the fourth in a series of lessons. To get the maximum benefit of CALI's alternative approach, before using this exercise, students should complete the following lessons in order: Covenants, Equitable Servitudes and Restrictions: Creation; Covenants, Equitable Servitudes and Restrictions: Determining Their Validity and Scope; and Covenants, Equitable Servitudes and Restrictions: Who Has the Right to Enforce Covenants and Equitable Servitudes?

As with many areas of the law, especially the more complicated ones, there is more than one way to analyze a problem. Law students and attorneys regularly find the study of real covenants and equitable servitudes to be extremely difficult. Casebooks and hornbooks often address more than one topic at a time when dealing with topics.

In contrast, to facilitate students' learning and understanding, CALI's series of lessons on real covenants and equitable servitudes provides an approach which breaks the study into more discreet, digestible components. This will not replace the traditional analysis regarding real covenants and servitudes. Rather, by mastering the CALI lessons, students will be better able to understand traditional covenants analyses.

45-60 minutes
PPL58

This lesson is designed to assist the first year Property student in analyzing the various questions arising from one's attempting to enforce real covenants and equitable servitudes. It follows in the order of the analytical process developed in the lesson on creating covenants and addresses the question "What defenses might be available to one against whom another is attempting to enforce a real covenant, equitable servitude or restriction?"

This tutorial is the fifth and final tutorial in a series of lessons. To get the maximum benefit of CALI's alternative approach, before using this exercise, students should complete the following lessons in order: Covenants, Equitable Servitudes and Restrictions: Creation, Covenants, Equitable Servitudes and Restrictions: Determining Their Validity and Scope, and Covenants and Equitable Servitudes: Who Has the Right to Enforce Covenants and Equitable Servitudes?

As with many areas of the law, especially the more complicated ones, there is more than one way to analyze a problem. Law students and attorneys regularly find the study of real covenants and equitable servitudes to be extremely difficult. Casebooks and hornbooks often address more than one topic at a time when dealing with legal issues. In contrast, to facilitate students' learning and understanding, CALI's series of lessons on real covenants and equitable servitudes provides an approach which breaks the study into more discreet, digestible components. This will not replace the traditional analysis regarding real covenants and servitudes. Rather, by mastering the CALI lessons, students will be better able to understand traditional covenants analyses.

1.5 hours
PPL59

Designed to help bridge the gap between law school and law practice, this tutorial introduces law students to commonly-used current awareness tools and alerting services. The lesson covers sources and strategies for finding topical services and newsletters, blogs, email discussion lists, and scholarship repositories in particular legal subjects, as well as using alert services (Lexis/Westlaw alerts, electronic table of contents notification, and RSS feeds) to keep up with the latest developments in a particular area of law.

45 minutes
LR94

The definition and location of customary international law is a difficult research task. This lesson begins by defining customary international law and placing customary international law into context through historical examples. Two research strategies for locating custom will be introduced. The first strategy is to locate pre-defined custom using a source that discusses state practice that has risen to the level of custom. The second and more complex strategy involves searching directly for evidence of customary international law.

30 minutes
LR56

This lesson deals with the basic and specific measures of damages recoverable for tortious injuries to the interest in use and enjoyment of personal property. Students will be acquainted with conceptual and pragmatic problems of valuing the interest in use and enjoyment of personal property. The several methods used by the courts for valuing the interest are explored in the context of concrete problems. Topics include: cost of renting a substitute, inconvenience, the earning power that the chattel holds, and monetary interest calculated upon the value of the chattel.

1 hour
TRT22

This lesson deals with basic and specific measures of damages recoverable in torts for harms to the interest in maintaining the physical integrity of personal property. Invasions of this interest are distinct from invasions of the interest in exclusive possession and the interest in use and enjoyment, and the law of damages reflects the differences. In order to deal effectively with the differences, separate lessons treat the interests in possession and use and enjoyment. The substance of causes of action available in torts for recovering damages is not treated here.

Before working in this lesson the student should complete the lessons on General Concepts of Damages in Torts and Fundamentals of Damages for Harms to Personal Property.

1.25 hours
TRT23

This lesson deals with basic and specific measures of damages recoverable for tortious invasions of the interest in exclusive possession of personal property.

The student will be presented with concrete situations in which to consider application of rules and concepts of the law of damages. Analytically, invasions of the interest are separated into permanent deprivations and temporary deprivations and the different rules applicable to the two different contexts are explored.

Coverage of the topic includes introduction to the problems of: determining the relevant market for reference in valuing the chattel; valuing chattels which have fluctuating value; ascertainable value and the relevance of that term to the issue of whether prejudgment interest on the value of the chattel should be included as damages; rental value as a measure of loss of use; recoverability of damages for emotional distress for the deprivation, among others.

Before working on this lesson, the student should complete the lessons on General Concepts of Damages in Torts and Fundamentals of Damages for Harms to Personal Property. Basic and specific measures of damages recoverable for tortious invasions of the interest in exclusive possession of personal property.

1 hour
TRT21

This lesson deals with basic principles and measures of damages recoverable for harms to real property. The analysis to which students will be acquainted examines the harms in the context of three categories of interests to be protected by the law of damages. Those categories, which are separately treated in the lesson, are exclusive possession, physical integrity and use and enjoyment. The student will be given an opportunity to apply the principles and measures to concrete situations, some of which will raise issues about whether the principles and measures work well to protect the interests under examination. The lesson assumes the student is familiar with basic concepts of damages and has completed the lesson of that title.

1 hour
TRT15

This lesson covers the common law rules and various statutory approaches governing recovery of damages for injuries resulting in death. Questions and problems in the lesson consider the circumstances under which and the extent to which damages are available to protect the interests of persons who die as a result of tortious injuries and the interests of the survivors of those persons.

Students working on the lesson are required to solve problems by parsing and applying statutory language of survivor statutes and wrongful death statutes drawn from eleven different states. In one question, students are invited to construct their own statutory provision to address a problem of coordination between survival and wrongful death statutes.

Students who successfully complete the lesson will have a good working grasp of the different interests addressed by survival statutes and wrongful death statutes; how to calculate damages under each; and the limitations upon recovery that such statutes are likely to contain. Completion of the lesson on Damages for Personal Injuries prior to working on this lesson is highly recommended.

1.5 hours
TRT43

This lesson covers the general principles and basic measures governing the remedy of damages for personal injuries. It explores issues and problems that confront a person seeking the damages remedy to address tortiously-inflicted physical harm.

The lesson considers the damages remedy by examining the general and special rules that govern legal protection of the interests in preserving bodily integrity, mental integrity, and ability to pursue a livelihood. In a series of situations presenting harms to those interests, the student will be asked to analyze the situations, then select, apply and assess those rules.

Working on the problems in the lesson will expose the student to concepts such as ascertainability; the collateral source rule; loss of earnings capacity; mental anguish; pain and suffering; prejudgment interest; reduction to present value; and work life expectancy among others.

A separate lesson, Damages for Injuries that Cause Death, deals with the issues and problems of remedying the ultimate physical injury. Before working in this lesson the student should first complete the lesson on General Concepts of Damages in Torts.

1.5 hours
TRT41

This series of exercises is designed to help the user recognize whether an issue involves federal or state legal issues, and to select legal research sources appropriate to the jurisdiction and the applicable law. This exercise assumes that the user has a basic knowledge of legal research sources.

20 minutes
LWR13

This Lessonette® exercise covers the subject of defense of others. In many respects an actor's right to defend another parallels his or her right to defend himself or herself. However, there are some specific exceptions and nuances that must be understood. It is the purpose of this lesson to cover those specifics and nuances in the context of some classic scenarios.

The justification defense of defense of others derives from two or three analogous old common law defenses: defense of self, prevention of crime, and perhaps protection of property. This lesson seeks to inform the student on the relationship of the defense of others to those other defenses. Although familiarity with those other defenses might assist a student working the lesson, one could learn about these other defenses from the lesson in the first instance.

The lesson contrasts the common law rules relating to the defense of others with the Model Penal Code provisions, as applied in recurring scenarios. The lesson also looks at jury instructions on defense of others. And, finally, the lesson focuses on the special rules relating to the duty to retreat in the context of the defense of others.

25 minutes
CRIM21

A contract has been formed if there is offer, acceptance, and consideration. But the contract is not necessarily enforceable, for there may be a defense to its formation. These defenses may arise because of the subject matter of the contract, because of its form, or because of the behavior of a party or the status of a party. This lesson provides an overview of the subject of defenses and introduces the user to the lessons that follow: Void, Voidable, and Unenforceable Contracts; Illegal Promises; Lack of Capacity; Duress and Undue Influence; Unjust Terms (Unconscionability); Fraud and Misrepresentation; Misunderstanding and Mistake and Statute of Frauds.

10 minutes
CON12

This lesson is designed to help students understand the term "search" as it is used under the Fourth Amendment. As we shall see, the term is a term of art which does not always correspond to popular conceptions or definitions of the term search. In this lesson, we explore the various facets and definitions of the term. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and who would like to refine their knowledge.

45 minutes
CRMPRO02

This lesson has been revised to reflect the December 1, 2006 amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, as they were re-written effective December 1, 2007.

The student is given sets of pleadings in civil cases and asked to identify issues that would be raised on a demurrer or motion for judgment on the pleadings. Although the case is set in a hypothetical code pleading state, the exercise also deals with motions to dismiss or for judgment on the pleadings under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The background reading contains all the information about code pleading that the student needs to know in order to do the exercise.

1 hour
CIV02

This lesson provides an introductory overview of the distinction between real property and personal property, including the historic origins of the distinction, the consequences of attaching things to land and severing things from land, the significance of fixtures, and examples of intangible property classified as real or personal property.

15 minutes
PPL13

This CALI lesson is intended to familiarize the reader with legal research materials in the District of Columbia. The lesson focuses on primary sources such as statutes, cases, agency regulations, and decisions.

1.5 hours
LR62

Prof. Andersen has written a CALI lesson that provides students with extensive flowcharts designed to aid in learning the analytical framework necessary for understanding the Dormant Commerce Clause. In this podcast, Prof. Andersen gives an overview of the Dormant Commerce Clause, including a brief discussion of the June 2005 U.S. Supreme Court Gonzales decision, concerning states regulation of medical marijuana. He also offers tips for tackling this topic and explains the best way to use his related lesson.

Download:
6:28 minutes
CST01P

This lesson has been revised to reflect the December 1, 2006 amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, as they were re-written effective December 1, 2007.

The student is presented with a hypothetical defamation case and instructed to compose a complaint for a diversity action in federal court. The student is told that the complaint must be drafted so that it would completely satisfy even the most punctilious judge. The student composes the complaint by choosing from a menu of paragraphs contained in the Park and McFarland computer booklet. The computer asks the student to explain the grounds upon which rejected paragraphs were not used. The student explains by choosing from a multiple choice format, and the computer responds by asking further questions or by criticizing the student’s answer. The exercise requires the student to compose a complaint which pleads grounds for jurisdiction and the elements of the claim at a proper level of generality, while avoiding superfluity or violation of Rule 11.

2 hours
CIV01

This exercise reviews the substance of contract law and demonstrates the application of the substantive law in the process of drafting. The exercise begins with a form contract. The student must rewrite the contract to suit the needs of the client. On completion, the student will have reviewed applicable principles from both the common law and the U.C.C. In addition, the student will have learned principles of drafting that can be applied either to revision of a form or to drafting from scratch.

1 - 1.5 hours
CON04

A large percentage of litigation arising out of contracts results from poor drafting. In order to eliminate this litigation, it is imperative that law students master good drafting skills. One of the most important aspects of drafting a contract is the operative language—language that affects legal relationships. This lesson is designed to introduce law students to operative language commonly used in drafting contracts, in particular, language of obligation (shall), language of authorization (may) and language of condition precedent (must). The lesson begins with a segment explaining each of the three categories of operative language followed by exercises which permit the student to apply his or her understanding of proper usage of that category. The lesson concludes with a segment of general exercises that test whether students have mastered the distinctions among the different categories of operative language.

45 minutes
LWR05

Drafters of contracts, wills and statutes are plagued with the ambiguities inherent in the use of these two connectors. This lesson is designed to identify these ambiguities and then help students to draft with conjunctions which eliminate those ambiguities.

After completing this lesson students should be able not only to identify ambiguous uses of 'and' and 'or' so that they may better analyze contracts, wills or statutes which they read, but they should also be able to draft documents so that ambiguities are avoided. A variety of real life applications are presented for each drafting problem and students are called upon to draft solutions. Students will interview a client to determine which meaning is appropriate, thus reenforcing the notion that drafting is an iterative process calling upon the lawyer to identify and clarify ambiguities in the client's instructions.

This ambiguity inherent in 'and' and 'or' is discussed at length in Scott Burnham's Drafting and Analyzing Contracts (LexisNexis 3d edition). This lesson uses Burnham's taxonomy as its basis.

30 minutes
LWR04

This lesson deals with the duration of offers. The existence of an offer is often an essential element of the bargaining process. Sometimes the offeree's power of acceptance will end so that the offer is no longer valid. This lesson will look at termination of the power of acceptance by termination, revocation and counteroffer, rejection, death and lapse.

40 minutes
CON40

Duress is one of those concepts that is easy to define and hard to apply. The lesson explores which kinds of "threats" are likely to provide a defense to contract formation and which are not.

45 minutes
CON16

This Lessonette® exercise covers the subject of the duty to retreat as a requirement for the justification defense of self-defense. This lesson reviews the common law and current status of the duty to retreat. This subject matter is not particularly complicated, but there are some details that require close scrutiny.

The lesson assumes some understanding of the duty to retreat as integrated into the defense of self-defense. One who works the lesson will pinpoint the nuances of issues that arise in the context of current issues relating to the duty to retreat, exceptions to the requirement of retreat. Finally, the lesson focuses on appropriate instructions to the jury on the duty to retreat.

25 minutes
CRIM20

This lesson covers the historical evolution of Congress's authority to enact legislation pursuant to the Commerce Clause. Congress's contemporary Commerce Clause authority is covered in a separate lesson.

45 minutes
CST04

This lesson examines the distinction between easements appurtenant (easements that exist to benefit another parcel of land) and easements in gross (easements that benefit an individual or business entity without regard to his or its ownership of land).

25 minutes
PPL19

This lesson introduces the law of easements by describing the typical scenario in which the need for an easement arises, examining alternatives to the creation of an easement, offering a legal definition of an easement, and summarizing the key sub-issues that arise in this legal area.

25 minutes
PPL16

This lesson examines the circumstances under which the law will imply an easement from prior existing use of the dominant and servient parcels. Each of the required elements for such implication: common ownership, prior use, severance and reasonable necessity are addressed specifically. The lesson also describes the different burden imposed when the common owner claims the benefit of the easement from that imposed when the grantee claims that benefit.

50 minutes
PPL38

This is one in a series of lessons directed at the ethical and professional considerations associated with the production of particular lawyering documents. This lesson is intended to introduce first year law students to the ethical and professional considerations associated with email correspondence in law practice. No prior instruction in professional responsibility is required.

30 minutes
LWR43

This exercise gives a basic overview of the types of equitable remedies. You need not have read any particular materials or taken any particular law school courses in order to complete the tutorial. It can be used to provide background in your courses where equity is especially relevant or to review the types of equitable remedies for use in a remedies course. The lesson will not examine doctrines of substantive equity (other than to note their existence) nor will the lesson explore the prerequisites for obtaining, defending against, or enforcing equitable remedies. Rather, the lesson is designed to introduce you to the basic vocabulary of equitable remedies.

45 minutes
REM02

The Erie Doctrine has befuddled Civil Procedure students for decades, but this lesson will take you through the basics: Why is there an Erie Doctrine? When does it apply? How does it apply? How do you tell the difference between substantive and procedural law?

30-45 minutes
CIV22

This lesson is designed to introduce you to the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. It is one of a number of lessons on the religion clauses (which include the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause), and the first of several lessons on Establishment Clause issues. It is intended for students who have studied these issues and wish to refine their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
CST08

This lesson will introduce students to the estate in fee tail, one of the traditional estate in land recognized by Anglo-American Law. While the fee tail has been abolished in most American jurisdictions, it continues to be recognized in modified form in a few states. Understanding the fee tail will give you a better understanding of the system of estates in land as a whole. This lesson will describe: the characteristics of the traditional fee tail; the characteristics of the fee tail in those states which continue to recognize it today; and the treatment under modern statutes of attempts to create a fee tail in states which no longer recognize that estate.

50 minutes
PPL26

This lesson and Basic Future Interests are designed to provide a comprehensive interactive tutorial with a scope corresponding to the usual coverage of estates and elementary future interests in the typical first-year property course. They are designed to be useful either for review or as a "first learning exposure" to the subjects covered. The lessons consist of text screens that are regularly interleaved with questions to stimulate thought and reinforce students' learning as they go. Frequent questions are intended to help maintain interest as well as to help students become familiar with new vocabulary and concepts.

The Estate System presents the possessory estates from the fee simple absolute to tenancies at will. Emphasis is on the various estates’ modern relevance, the typical language of conveyance that creates them, their differentiating characteristics, and the general theory of carving up the fee simple into particular estates and future interests. (Note: The defeasible fee simple estates are covered in Basic Future Interests).

This lesson contains the following units:

  • What is an “Estate in Land”?
  • Carving a Term of Years out of a Fee Simple
  • Classification of Estates (and a bit of history)
  • Carving up the Term of Years
  • Fee Simple Absolute: The “Greatest”
  • Creating a Term of Years: The Statute of Frauds
  • Creating a Fee Simple Absolute
  • The Periodic Tenancies and Tenancy at Will
  • Termination of a Fee Simple Absolute
  • Creating Tenancies at Will
  • Carving up the Fee Simple Absolute
  • Creating Periodic Tenancies
  • Fee Tail
  • Terminating Periodic Tenancies
  • Life Estates
  • Some Questions on Terminating Leasehold Tenancies
  • The Term of Years
10 - 20 minutes per unit.
PPL04

This review exercise consists of 100 questions about the estate system. It should be attempted only after studying the material in class or in other CALI lessons.

2 hours
PPL62

This is one in a series of lessons directed at the ethical and professional considerations associated with the production of particular lawyering documents. This lesson is intended to introduce first year law students to the ethical and professional considerations associated with the preparation of predictive, interoffice memoranda. It is assumed that students are familiar with predictive, interoffice memoranda. No prior instruction in professional responsibility is required.

45 minutes
LWR41

This lesson will provide the student with the tools to effectively judge the content of web pages. Included in the exercise are four criteria for evaluation: authority, accuracy, comprehensiveness and currency. Each of these concepts is defined through the use of descriptive text followed by screen images of actual law-related web sites to illustrate the concepts.

30 minutes
LWR39

This lesson has been revised to reflect the December 1, 2006 amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, as they were re-written effective December 1, 2007.

This exercise has two purposes. The first is to engage students actively in legal analysis. Hence, the exercise contains some difficult questions that require careful thought. The second is to provide a survey of the rules of evidence in order to give students a deeper understanding of other subjects studied in Civil Procedure courses.

2.5 hours
CIV06

CALI's Director of Curriculum Development, Deb Quentel, spoke with six law professors about outlines, studying for class, preparing for exams, time management, and how professors grade exams. The conversations were recorded as podcasts. While these podcasts are not intended to take the place of a conversation with your professor, the professors hope that these podcasts give law students additional insight into the exam process.

Panel 1: Professors Ron Eades, John Farago, Patrick Wiseman

Download:
21:38 minutes
LCS03P1

CALI's Director of Curriculum Development, Deb Quentel, spoke with six law professors about outlines, studying for class, preparing for exams, time management, and how professors grade exams. The conversations were recorded as podcasts. While these podcasts are not intended to take the place of a conversation with your professor, the professors hope that these podcasts give law students additional insight into the exam process.

Panel 2: Professors Ron Brown and Joe Grohman

Download:
12:19 minutes
LCS03P2

CALI's Director of Curriculum Development, Deb Quentel, spoke with six law professors about outlines, studying for class, preparing for exams, time management, and how professors grade exams. The conversations were recorded as podcasts. While these podcasts are not intended to take the place of a conversation with your professor, the professors hope that these podcasts give law students additional insight into the exam process.

Panel 3: Professor Darryl Wilson

Download:
11:48 minutes
LCS03P3

This lesson takes a look at the doctrine of excuse. In particular, we will look at the doctrines of impossibility, frustration of purpose and impracticability. Each of these doctrines excuses performance of the parties to the agreement. This lesson sets out the basic requisites for when courts excuse contract performance and evaluating those situations that merit excuse. The general attributes of contract formation and breach are covered in other lessons.

50 minutes
CON77

Excuses I provides a general introduction to excuse defenses by placing them within the larger context of the analysis of criminal liability. More specifically, Excuses I covers duress, entrapment, and mistake (or "ignorance"). Insanity and infancy are covered in Excuses II.

40 minutes
CRIM12

Excuses II covers the excuses of insanity and infancy. As in Excuses I, the connection between these defenses and other issues in the analysis of criminal liability is emphasized. Excuses II is a freestanding exercise and provides a general introduction to the concept of an excuse. Still, it's probably best used in conjunction with Excuses I.

30 minutes
CRIM13

This lesson focuses on the presidential version of executive privilege. The lesson examines the justifications for the privilege, the requirements for its invocation, and judicial handling of that privilege. The lesson is intended for students who have studied this privilege in class, and who wish to further refine their understanding of the topic.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM25

When the court awards money damages for breach of contract, it generally measures the damages by what is called the expectation measure or the expectancy. This lesson explains how those damages are calculated. It can be run either as an introduction to expectancy damages or as a review after you have completed your study.

45 minutes
CON56

The goal of this lesson is to take the user systematically through UCC Article 2. The lesson accomplishes this goal by having the user study a contract for the sale of goods. The concepts of Article 2 are thereby seen in the practical setting in which they are applied. Conversely, study of the contract reveals the source of each of the included provisions in the law. The user becomes familiar with the default rules and how those rules might be changed on behalf of a client. The user finishes with knowledge of the Code and how the Code may be applied in practice when drafting a contract.

3 hours
CON10

Contracts are sometimes referred to as express or implied. Implied contracts are in turn often referred to as contracts implied-in-fact or implied-in-law. The difference between express contracts and implied-in-fact ones results from the conduct of the party in making the promise constituting the assent to the contract. Implied-in-law or quasi-contracts, however, are not really contracts at all, but merely a remedy in restitution. This lesson explores the nature of express contracts, implied-in-fact and implied-in-law contracts.

20-30 minutes
CON44

This lesson introduces the student to the most common type of easement, the express easement. When we speak of an express easement we mean an easement that is voluntarily created by the parties to it. Express easements are to be contrasted with easements that are implied by law. Implied easements are the subject of another lesson.

30 minutes
PPL18

This lesson explores the intentional tort of false imprisonment. Beginning with identification of the interest the tort protects, the questions become more and more challenging as they explore the nature of the confinement necessary and appropriate damages. Since the greatest use of the tort today probably is in arrest for shoplifting, the lesson includes a tightly fact-bound question about a person detained for shoplifting. The lesson concludes with false imprisonment in two tough situations: religious deprogramming and nursing home confinement.

30 minutes
TRT28

Note: This lesson uses Flash and is unable to be viewed on a device that does not have the Flash player installed. Scoring for this lesson is also unavailable at this time.

Many important state concerns are within the power of states to regulate (e.g., highway safety, waste disposal, environmental degradation) but state regulation of such concerns can have, in today's world, substantial impacts outside the state. This program diagrams the three constitutional clauses which govern the validity of state impacts of this kind: the so-called Dormant Commerce Clause, the Supremacy Clause and the Privileges and Immunities Clause.

A basic diagram or flow-chart is developed, after which, the program provides summaries of the principal doctrines and digests of several of the landmark cases. The program is not an extended textual treatment of the issues; instead, it is an effort to show in graphic form the components of the various doctrines and how they relate. From there, the student should be able to read other cases and texts with more understanding.

30 minutes
CST01

Compiled legislative histories are collections of the documents that make up the legislative history of a law. They save researchers the time and frustration of collecting the documents themselves. This lesson introduces students to print and online sources of compiled legislative histories and time saving strategies for finding them. This lesson builds upon the CALI Lesson Researching Federal Legislative History. While it is not essential to complete that lesson first, doing so will improve your understanding of compiled legislative histories.

30 minutes
LR41

This lesson on federal tax research covers the legislative, administrative, and judicial materials used in the specialized area of tax law. A basic knowledge of primary sources such as statutes, regulations, and cases; secondary sources such as treatises, law reviews, newsletters, citators, digests, and periodical indexes is assumed. Federal taxation is a specialized field with many publications devoted solely to federal taxes. For general background there are many excellent CALI lessons, including, but not limited to Researching Federal Legislative History, Forms of Statutory Publication, Introduction to Secondary Resources, and Updating/Validating Case Law Using Citators.

1.5 hours
LR60

In the Anglo-American legal system land is not owned directly. Rather, people own legal interests in land. The reason land is owned in this way goes back to the feudal origins of land holding in England. The fee simple absolute is one of the estates in land, which emerged from that system.

This lesson will help students understand: (1) the legal concept of an estate in land, (2) the legal characteristics of the fee simple absolute, and (3) what is necessary to create a fee simple absolute.

45 minutes
PPL14

This exercise is designed as a basic introduction for the first year law student to the fundamental principles involved in real estate financing, including mortgages, deeds of trust and installment land sales contracts. However, real estate financing is a complicated topic and best dealt with in an upper division Real Estate Finance class. So, this interactive tutorial will not complete the topic, except as typically addressed in a first year Property class.

30 minutes
PPL45

In this lesson, you will learn about the International Court of Justice, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. After an introduction to the Court, you'll learn about some of the print reporters of the Court's decisions and online sources for these opinions. Finally, there will be a discussion of print and online digests of the Court's decisions.

20 minutes
LR66

This exercise is intended to do 2 things: 1) teach you the basic approaches to finding statutes, and 2) provide you with review exercises to reinforce your understanding. It is assumed you are already familiar with the forms of statutory publication when you run this lesson. See the lessons "Introduction to State and Federal Statutes" or "Forms of Federal Statutory Publication" if you need to review these matters first.

While this lesson is intended for first year students, the review sections may be used independently to ‘refresh your recollection,’ so if you haven’t had to deal with statute research for awhile and now have to do it, you can brush up your skills.

45 minutes
LR23

This lesson introduces Florida primary legal resources including the Florida Constitution, statutes, court decisions, Florida administrative law and Florida attorney general opinions.

1 hour
LR86

This lesson introduces the various types of secondary sources available to research Florida law.

30 - 45 minutes
LR85

The damages a plaintiff can recover for breach of contract are limited to those that are reasonably foreseeable at the time of contracting. This lesson explores the concept of foreseeability from its origin in the Hadley rule to more contemporary applications. The lesson can be run either as an introduction to foreseeability or as a review after you have completed your study.

40 minutes
CON58

This lesson deals with the formation of contracts under Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code (excluding 2-207 issues). At common law, a contract is formed often by the showing of mutual assent plus a consideration. The rule is reversed under the Uniform Commercial Code, however. Under UCC 2-204, a contract can be formed in any manner sufficient to show agreement, even if the parties leave open terms. This lesson will explore the effect of the difference in formation between common law and Article 2. You can work this lesson as an introduction to the formation of contracts under the UCC or as a review. The material in this lesson may be a more in-depth study of Article 2 than some first year contracts courses require. However, prior to working this lesson, you should have an understanding of the common law on offer, acceptance and mutual assent.

1 hour
CON65

The four forms of federal statutory publications are slip laws, session laws (or advance session laws), Codes, and Annotated Codes. As a researcher, you will most frequently use an Annotated Code for accessing federal law. It is, however, important to understand each stage of federal legislative publication and the implications for research.

This lesson is designed to give you an introduction to the intricacies of federal statutory publication. You should understand how the different forms are interconnected as well as the differences between them by the completion of this lesson.

25 minutes
LWR30

This lesson is designed to introduce students to the Fourth Amendment prohibition against "unreasonable searches and seizures." The goal is to provide students with an overview of the history of the Fourth Amendment, as well as an introduction to the warrant requirement and the concept of warrantless searches. The lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and wish to refine their knowledge.

40 minutes
CRMPRO01

This lesson explores the elements of the fraud defense, looking at both affirmative misrepresentation of facts and failure to disclose facts. The user should finish with the ability to determine which element is in issue in a case.

1 hour
CON19

This lesson focuses on the justifications for giving Freedom of Speech, as protected under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, a privileged and preferred position vis-à-vis other rights. It begins with an analysis of historical antecedents, and concludes with an analysis of the justifications themselves. The lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and wish to refine and enhance their knowledge.

45 minutes
CST02

This lesson serves as background and foundation for other lessons on damages for harms to personal property. It deals with general principles and basic measures of damages recoverable for harms to personal property. The lessons on harms to possessory interests, harms to integrity interests and harms to the interest in use and enjoyment of personal property all will delve more deeply into the intricacies of damages law in this area.

Students will first be introduced to the interests of owners of personal property that are compensated in the law of damages. Then, in problems which raise some fundamental issues, they will be presented with the basic measures of damages. Later, some alternatives to the basic measures will be briefly explored, and students will be introduced to the "Rule of Certainty" in the proof of damages. The substantive causes of action available for recovering damages for harms to personal property are ignored in this lesson.

In addition to working in this lesson, the student should also work in the lesson on General Concepts of Damages in Torts to get a basic grounding in the area of torts damages.

1.5 hours
TRT20

This lesson reviews the key aspects of the Merger Rule, the Rule in Shelley's Case and the Doctrine of Worthier Title. These three rules transform future interests in certain types of conveyances and should be learned after one has mastered the classification of estates and future interests and before one studies the Rule Against Perpetuities.

30 minutes
PPL60

This lesson introduces the student to the structure, function, and terminology of the law of damages in the context of torts cases. It deals with the concept of general and special damages and presents questions that help students distinguish the two categories. Problems of measurement of damages are introduced, and nominal damages are briefly considered.

1 hour
TRT08

This lesson discusses the standard of care of professionals. The initial sections illustrate the general duty of professionals and highlight special problems associated with the professional standard. Special attention is then directed toward the malpractice action against attorneys.

15 minutes
TRT13

This lesson is intended to familiarize the reader with Georgia legal research materials and will focus on Georgia's secondary source material. You will learn about finding aids for researching secondary source materials and explore both hard cover and online tools to access secondary source materials.

45 minutes
LR64

This lesson is intended to familiarize the reader with Georgia legal research materials. The lesson focuses on Georgia's primary source material including cases and digests, citators, statutes, administrative materials, court rules and ethics.

1 hour, 15 minutes
LR42

This lesson addresses inter vivos gifts of property, focusing primarily on personal property (but with a brief discussion of inter vivos gifts of land). The lesson explores the function of the various requirements (donative intent, delivery, and acceptance) for a valid inter vivos gift and the policies implicated by the law of gifts. The lesson includes a wide variety of problems designed to test student understanding of the rules governing inter vivos gifts.

55 minutes
PPL25

This lesson follows up and builds upon the material in the lesson on Inter Vivos Gifts, but focuses instead upon transfers at death or in anticipation of death. The lesson should help students to understand the following: the requirements necessary for an effective testamentary or causa mortis gift; the functions these requirements serve; the policies implicated by the law of gifts made at death or in anticipation of death; the extent to which the donor may make an inter vivos gift of a future interest in property; and how courts have distinguished inter vivos gifts of future interests from testamentary gifts.

1.5 hours
PPL31

This lesson considers probably the most common type of implied term, that of good faith. Courts often supply a term requiring the parties to exercise "good faith" or "good faith and fair dealing". The UCC provides that every contract is subject to good faith requirements, which cannot be disclaimed by agreement.

20 minutes
CON26

This lesson is intended to familiarize the user with the range of documents produced by the Federal government, where they can be found, and how they can be used in a law practice. The lesson focuses on issues surrounding government documents including: authenticity, how to find and use government documents, and statistics. While this lesson is aimed primarily at second and third year law students who will be learning about these materials for the first time, each section may be used independently to gain knowledge about the particular topic involved.

45-50 minutes
LR96

This lesson is an introduction to health law with a concentration on health care law and is intended for use by upper level students interested in researching health law and policy. However, this lesson may be utilized by any researcher interested in brushing up on their legal research skills. The goal of this lesson is to (1) provide an understanding of the regulatory scheme of health care institutions at both the state and federal level; and (2) give a critical overview of the features of analytical materials (secondary sources) that you may utilize for more in-depth understanding.

45 minutes
LR134

Note: This lesson uses Flash and is unable to be viewed on a device that does not have the Flash player installed. Scoring for this lesson is also unavailable at this time.

This lesson presents a schematic flowchart or algorithm illustrating one approach to determining whether due process applies to a particular agency hearing and, if it does, how one determines what procedures are required and the time at which they must be made available. It references several of the basic Supreme Court cases (Goldberg, Roth, Perry, Goss, Mathews, etc.).

45 minutes
ADM07

Knowing when to stop is important for efficient and cost effective legal research. This exercise will cover several factors which you may wish to consider.

45 minutes
LWR31

This is one of a series of lessons on homicide, and one of two lessons on the issue of causation in homicide cases. While some crimes require only a prohibited act, with the necessary mental state, other crimes are referred to as "result" crimes. In other words, in order to be convicted, the defendant must "cause" a prohibited result (with the required mens rea and with proof of required attendant circumstances). Homicide is the quintessential result crime in that defendant must have "caused" the death of another in order to be convicted. In this lesson, we explore the concept of causation (both actual and legal) in an effort to determine when, and under what circumstances, a defendant should be criminally accountable for the death of another. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and who wish to refine their knowledge and understanding of the topic.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
CRIM42

This is one of a series of lessons on homicide, and one of two lessons on the topic of causation as applied in homicide cases. Although some crimes require only a mens rea and an actus reus (and, perhaps, an attendance circumstance), other crimes are "result" crimes in that they also require proof that defendant "caused" a particular result. Homicide is the quintessential result crime. This lesson builds on an earlier lesson dealing with causation in homicide cases by focusing on the Model Penal Code's approach to causation. This lesson is intended for students who have studied the MPC's causation provisions in class, and who wish to refine their understanding of the topic.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
CRIM44

This is one of a series of lessons on homicide, and it examines the definitions of "death" and "life" for purposes of the law of homicide. Homicide is a "result" crime in that defendant must have caused the death of another person, and questions necessarily arise regarding when life begins and when life ends. In this lesson, we explore questions related to the definition of death and life in the law of homicide. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and who wish to refine and enhance their knowledge of the topic.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
CRIM40

This is one of a series of lessons on homicide, and it deals with the topic of felony murder. At common law, one way to commit murder was to show that defendant caused the death of another during commission of a felony (the so-called "felony murder doctrine"). This lesson examines that doctrine. It is intended for students who have studied the doctrine in class and who seek to refine their knowledge and understanding of the doctrine.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
CRIM41

This is one of a series of lessons on homicide. In earlier lessons, we focused on the crime of murder, examining the common law, modern statutes and the Model Penal Code formulation. In this lesson, we continue our examination of homicide by focusing on the crime of involuntary manslaughter. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and who wish to refine and enhance their knowledge and understanding of the topic.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
CRIM43

At common law, as well as under modern statutory codes, the crime of murder was defined as a homicide committed with "malice aforethought." Some modern statutes divide the crime of murder into degrees. In this lesson, we examine these statutes in an effort to see when and how they apply. The lesson is intended for students who have studied the murder by degree statutes in class, and who wish to refine and enhance their knowledge and understanding of the topic.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
CRIM38

At common law, as well as under modern statutory codes, the crime of homicide was (and is) divided into various component crimes. In addition to the crime of murder, the most serious crime, there are other crimes (e.g., voluntary manslaughter, involuntary manslaughter, etc.). This lesson provides an overview of the crime of murder by examining how that crime was handled under the common law, as well as how it is handled under the Model Penal Code, and other modern statutory approaches. Subsequent lessons will provide more detailed examination of these topics. This lesson is intended for students who have studied the crime of murder in class, and who wish to refine and enhance their knowledge and understanding of the topic.

35 minutes (20 minutes without the essay)
CRIM37

This is one of a series of lessons on homicide. Earlier lessons provide an overview of the crime of homicide, and individual lessons focus on such topics as murder, manslaughter and other crimes. This lesson focuses on the so-called unlawful act manslaughter doctrine. The lesson is intended for students who have studied this doctrine in class and who wish to refine their knowledge of the topic.

40 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
CRIM39

This is an exercise designed to introduce first-semester law students to the basic elements of a typical case "brief" and to teach them general methodology for writing their own briefs. The exercise consists of three parts: (1) an introduction to the purposes and uses of a case brief; (2) a detailed examination of each of the ten components of a typical case brief (with examples); and (3) two actual cases that students are asked to read and then to brief, using the methodology described in this exercise. A sample brief for each of the two cases is also provided, thereby allowing students to correct and modify their briefs by way of comparison.

2 hours
LWR09

This exercise will provide the student with a detailed introduction to using the digests to find case law. Example pages from the West reporters and digests are provided and hypothetical research issues are demonstrated to show how these books are used.

Note: A brief excerpt from this lesson is available as the separate CALI Lesson "Anatomy of a Case".

1 hour
LWR29

Professor Ron Eades has taught Torts Law for over 25 years. In this podcast Prof. Eades offers advice on preparing for class, classroom dynamics, note taking, post-class studying, outlining, ways to measure your progress, "pitfalls" to studying Torts, what students should try and get from class. He also offers general advice for 1Ls starting law school and the study of Torts.

Download:

18:15 minutes
TRT48P

This lesson will cover how to conduct legal research about the U.S. Constitution and the constitutions of individual states.

90 minutes
LR113

This lesson will cover how to research the constitutions of countries besides the United States.

1 hour
LR116

This lesson explores the defense that a contract is illegal. In some cases, the legislature has ruled that certain kinds of contracts are illegal, while in other cases it is up to the court to make the determination. This lesson examines the criteria used to make that determination and the consequences to the parties if the determination is made. It also examines the ethics of a contract drafter including illegal provisions in a contract.

1 hour
CON14

This exercise examines the requirements for implication of an easement of necessity. Implied easements of necessity arise when, as a result of an owner of land transferring part of his land, either the transferred part or the retained part is landlocked such that the owner of that parcel cannot gain access to it.

30 minutes
PPL36

The terms of a contract include express and implied promises, conditions, provisos and presuppositions that bind the parties. Contracts often have "gaps" in them, either intentionally or unintentionally left that way by the parties. This exercise considers how courts supply terms to fill those gaps both at common law and under the UCC.

40 minutes
CON25

This exercise deals with offer, an essential element of the bargaining process. At common law, in order for a contract to be binding on the parties, the terms must be sufficiently definite or the contract will fail. This lesson explores the boundaries of the doctrine of indefiniteness.

30 minutes
CON63

This lesson will teach you how to locate treaties between Indian tribes and the United States government. It will also show you how to determine whether a particular treaty provision is still in effect and how to interpret ambiguous treaty provisions.

30 minutes
LR115

This lesson will introduce you to the basic sources for finding primary law in Indiana, and how to use them.

1 hour
LR91

This is the third in a series of lessons on injunctions against speech. This lesson focuses on injunctions against invasions of privacy. The lesson is intended for students who have studied this material in class and who seek to refine their knowledge.

45 minutes
REM34

This is an exercise requiring the student to apply the concept of intent, as defined in Restatement (Second) of Torts. The student is asked (1) to approve or disapprove asserted propositions applying the concept to a fact situation; (2) to identify the errors in erroneous propositions; (3) to indicate how erroneous propositions can be corrected; and (4) to identify, in the role of associate counsel at trial, appropriate grounds of objection to a proposed charge to the jury.

1.5 hours
TRT01

This lesson explores an intentional tort that is one of the most recent torts to emerge, one of the most commonly pleaded today, and one that is still evolving. The tort is most commonly called intentional infliction of mental distress; sometimes courts call it intentional infliction of emotional distress, or simply outrage. The lesson requires no advance preparation; it is designed so that it provides both a solid understanding of the tort and then difficult and challenging questions to students who have already studied the tort at length.

35 minutes
TRT27

This lesson is designed to lead the student through exploration of the intentional torts. It is divided into intent, torts against person, torts against property, and defenses. Each of these sections is subdivided: for example, the torts against person section contains questions on battery, assault, false imprisonment, and intentional infliction of mental distress. This organization allows use of the lesson in various ways. A student can divide the lesson into segments of differing size, such as consideration of a single tort in a single sitting, or consideration of all of the torts against property in a single sitting. Also, students will find value in the questions before, during, or after classroom work on the torts. Some professors may choose to assign the lesson in lieu of class time on the subject. The questions lead the student far beyond the elements of the torts into factual applications, policy considerations, and argument evaluation.

Numerous hypertext links and citations to authorities invite the student to consideration of differing views and to further research into the area. The lesson often engages the student in a "dialogue" on the merit of a response.

0.75 - 1 hour for each section.
TRT04

This is an introduction to researching the law relating to inter-governmental and non-governmental agencies. IGOs and NGOs have significant input into international law and finding their resources can be integral to research in international law.

40 minutes
LR80

This lesson demonstrates the way in which internet searching can provide access to internal administrative agency materials.

20 minutes
LR50

This lesson will give students a basic introduction to using the Internet for legal research. Students will consider when it is appropriate to use the Internet as a research tool in legal practice, and they will learn how to evaluate the quality and reliability of free web resources. Students will then be introduced to three practical approaches to doing legal research on the Internet.

30 minutes
LR18

Effective December 1, 2006, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure were amended to reflect changes in discovery resulting from the electronic storage of information. CALI's lessons do not yet reflect these amendments. As each lesson is revised to reflect the amended rules, the lesson's catalog description will be updated to enable students and faculty to easily tell which lessons include the amended rules.

As its name implies, this lesson is designed to give the student an introduction to the subject of interpleader. The lesson briefly describes the concept of interpleader and some of the historical limitations on the remedy, but its focus is on interpleader under the federal statute and Rule 22. The lesson introduces the various procedural issues involved—such as subject matter jurisdiction, personal jurisdiction and venue—and highlights the differences between statutory and rule interpleader on these subjects. The lesson also contains a segment on the problem presented in State Farm v. Tashire—enjoining other pending actions. The lesson requires the student to use the relevant statutes and rules, which are included in the lesson.

2 hours
CIV21

Interpretation involves an ascertainment of the meaning of a contract. Whereas "construction" of a contract relates to the legal effect of the words used by the parties, "interpretation" addresses the meaning of the parties. Whose meaning is to be given effect with respect to certain contract terms? What evidence may be taken into account when courts engage in interpretation? In another lesson, the discussion of the parol evidence rule relates to the admissibility of agreements made prior to or contemporaneous with the writing. Here, the parol evidence rule will be considered with respect to the admissibility of extrinsic evidence to determine the meaning of the contract as formed.

25 minutes
CON35

In property, trusts and estates, or wills students learn a range of technical language for creating estates and interests in land and other property. They have probably prepared themselves to recognize these "magic words" and identify the interests they create. They may even find themselves enjoying this linguistic exercise, feeling as though here, finally, is an area of law in which there are "right" and "wrong" answers.

This exercise is designed to take students beyond those "magic words" to work with conveyances in which the magic words aren't used correctly or do not point to a single, plain meaning: to learn rules for interpreting language that are manipulable, sometimes contradictory, but very important to the task of interpretation; and to recognize the uncertainty in creating and interpreting granting language.

1 hour
PPL07

This Lessonette® deals with the question of when and why an event that intervenes between the defendant's negligence and the plaintiff's injury may have the result that the defendant is relieved of liability for the injury.

20 minutes
TRT42

This exercise begins with some general background questions to help students place administrative agencies within the greater Constitutional scheme. These questions also address the various powers agencies wield, and the ways they are created. Then the exercise examines several print and online directory sources that offer specific details on individual agencies; it goes on to briefly discuss procedural rules, policy statements, and the process of promulgating regulations. The exercise concludes with review questions.

30-45 minutes
LWR33

This lesson enumerates some general principles of contract remedies. You may want to run it before you run any of the individual lessons on contract remedies. It may be run as an introduction before you have studied contract remedies or as a review after you have studied the topic.

1 hour
CON42

This lesson gives a brief introduction to some of the basic concepts in foreign legal research, such as foreign legal systems, availability of materials, and research strategies.

30 minutes
LWR32

This lesson provides a basic overview of the law of homicide. It is an introductory lesson to get you started on distinguishing criminal from noncriminal homicide, identifying the elements of homicide, and analyzing the varying degrees of homicide. The lesson guides you through applying the basic concepts of actus reus, mens rea and causation to homicide offenses and provides an analytical framework for approaching homicide problems. Finally, it provides separate practice questions and an opportunity to try out the problem-solving approach on an exam-type question.

25 minutes
CRIM33

This is an introductory lesson for international human rights law and research. The lesson contains four parts. Part I is designed to provide the user with a basic understanding of the development of human rights. Part II introduces the user to the United Nations and regional human rights structures. A researcher must be aware of the structure of the complaint and enforcement systems in order to locate and understand the significance of human rights materials. As a result, a significant amount of time is devoted to this section. Part III contains a discussion of resources available to assist users developing a contextual understanding of human rights issues. The lesson concludes with an overview of resources available for substantive human rights research.

Although humanitarian law or the law of armed conflict is occasionally discussed as a branch of human rights law, this topic is beyond the scope of this introductory lesson. Additionally, this lesson is not intended to cover international criminal law research regarding violations of human rights norms, such as the prohibition on genocide.

75 minutes
LR76

The lesson is designed for students taking an introductory legal research course who are already somewhat familiar with online research on Westlaw and LexisNexis. Students will learn about keyword search formulation strategies and the mechanics of Boolean searching on both systems. This lesson will be useful for students with basic or intermediate keyword searching knowledge and experience.

45 - 60 minutes
LR59

This lesson will provide an overview of secondary resources used in legal research. Secondary resources are books and other material ABOUT legal subjects and issues: they discuss and explain primary resources such as cases and statutes and can be useful in assisting our understanding about specific areas of law. The student will learn about the different types of secondary resources and what secondary resources are most useful for specific types of legal research tasks.

40 - 50 minutes
LWR35

This is an introductory lesson on federal and state statutes, to acquaint first-year law students with this important form of law. The lesson focuses on the basic structure of statutes and the sources in which they appear. It doesn't describe how to research statutes, but you'll learn statutory research much more easily if you learn this material first.

The lesson begins with a Skills Assessment Quiz. This quiz is designed to help you figure out how much you already understand statutes. It covers the most essential information on statutes, which should be gained from the lesson. At the end of the lesson, you can retake the Skills Assessment Quiz and discover how effectively you have improved your understanding.

1 hour
LWR15

This lesson will help you master legal citations using the California Style Manual, Fourth Edition (hereinafter "Manual"). This exercise is to assist you to master the specific rules of citation for your briefs and legal memoranda. It does not deal with proper citation formats for law review footnotes. Throughout this lesson, you will be asked to read specific portions of the Manual and apply that knowledge to answer interactive exercises.

You may complete the entire lesson at one time or complete segments as you cover various parts of the Manual.

1 hour
LR75

This lesson explores invitations to negotiate/preliminary negotiations and other statements and expressions that are not offers, including advertisements, invitations to bid, price quotations and statements of intention. Determining whether a particular communication is an offer or preliminary negotiation (a matter determined according to the surrounding circumstances) prior to the formation of contract is essential to the determination of whether a contract exists.

40 minutes
CON38

This lesson is intended to familiarize the user with the types of primary legal research materials you will encounter when researching Iowa law. The lesson focuses on primary source material including: the Iowa Constitution, Iowa statutes, codes, and administrative law, the Iowa court system, and Iowa cases. The lesson is aimed primarily at first year law students who will be learning about these materials for the first time. Thus, no prior knowledge of Iowa legal research is necessary to follow this lesson.

1 hour
LR108

This lesson will introduce the reader to secondary research sources for Iowa legal research. The lesson will begin with a discussion of finding aids, and will then transition to a discussion of the following secondary resources: Treatises & Practice Materials, Legal Periodicals & Restatements, and sources for Iowa Legal Forms. The lesson is primarily intended as an introduction to these sources but can also be used as a refresher for the seasoned Iowa attorney.

1 hour
LR109

This lesson introduces a modern approach to writing issue statements for traditional memos and briefs. The lesson steers users away from single-sentence issue statements. It bases much of its approach on the syllogism.

45 minutes
LWR28

The goal of this program is to teach a substantial amount of Article 2 through the study of a single case. This exercise begins with a warranty case, ITT v. LTX. At any point in the program, however, you are free to explore any other part of the program. You may, for example, explore the issues in the case, which cover a large part of Article 2 and common law contracts. You can read what each opinion in the case says about the issue, explore treatises, go to the language of the UCC, or hear what the attorneys involved in the case have to say. Cap off your experience by taking a quiz on the issue which is similar to traditional CALI lessons.

Alternatively, you can learn more about the case by exploring such materials as the complaint, the pre-trial stipulations, and the trial testimony. Read treatises on case analysis or explore the elements of a claim for breach of contract and how the elements were proven in this case. The program contains such multimedia aspects as a videotape introduced in evidence at the trial, photographs, and statements by the attorneys.

2-2.5 hours
SAL01

This exercise is designed to help students learn the principles of joinder under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. It is designed to be used in different ways. Students may use it as a tutorial to accompany assigned readings, as a supplement to reinforce concepts discussed in class, or as a review before exams. The tutorial is interactive, requiring the student to respond to various questions and hypotheticals to learn the principles embodied in the rules. It does not assume any specific knowledge of the joinder rules - it is designed to teach the rules from scratch.

The exercise uses hypertext links between various parts of the tutorial. These links offer students options in navigating through the lesson so they are not forced to follow a particular order. The user is the master of the organization. All of the rules and statutes that are needed are available as part of the lesson and may be viewed at any time by selecting an on-screen button.

The lesson includes units on a variety of joinder topics: Claim Joinder (Rule 18); Party Joinder (Rule 20); Counterclaims; Cross-claims; Third-Party Claims (Rule 14); Compulsory Joinder (Rule 19); and Intervention (Rule 24). It also contains an extensive unit devoted to the Subject Matter Jurisdiction problems raised by these rules. Finally, there is a review unit to allow the user to apply the principles learned in the lesson. The exercise is not tied to the organization of any particular civil procedure text.

20-45 minutes for each section, 4.75 hours
CIV18

This lesson is the first of several addressing the various relationships resulting in the concurrent ownership of property. It is designed to introduce Property students to this tenancy form. The tutorial progresses from addressing the traditional unities required to create a joint tenancy, the resulting right of survivorship, and the numerous events severing the tenancy. Also, it addresses with the status of joint tenancy under modern statutes.

1.75 hours
PPL21

This lesson has been revised to reflect the December 1, 2006 amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, as they were re-written effective December 1, 2007.

Students are asked to analyze and synthesize three federal cases on directed verdicts, answering questions about the standards set forth in the cases.

2 hours
CIV04

This lesson has been revised to reflect the December 1, 2006 amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, as they were re-written effective December 1, 2007.

The student is asked, in this exercise, to answer questions about whether a hypothetical action could be brought in various fora.

This exercise is designed primarily to give basic instruction on statutes relating to diversity jurisdiction, removal, venue, and personal jurisdiction. However, the exercise also requires the student to interpret two diversity jurisdiction cases that deal with change of citizenship by acquisition of a new domicile.

Everything the student needs to know for the exercise is contained in the exercise; so the exercise can be assigned prior to reaching the subject in class, with a view toward allowing class discussion to begin at a higher level.

2 hours
CIV03

This exercise was substantially revised in 2012 and is designed for a student who has already read most of the material on personal jurisdiction in a typical first year civil procedure course. The topics covered include: the "minimum contacts" test as a measure of the due process clause of the 14th Amendment, the interpretation and application of typical longarm statutes, the interplay of statutory interpretation with the constitutional requirements, the difference between "specific" and "general" jurisdiction, the extent to which a defendant may contractually waive jurisdiction protections, an exploration of the different ways in which the jurisdictional rules apply depending on whether the defendant is an individual or a corporation, and the continued viability of the concept of "transient" jurisdiction.

The above topics are explored through a series of hypotheticals, beginning with an extended variation on the facts of International Shoe. The two predominant jurisdictional statutes used in the exercise are the Uniform Interstate and International Procedure Act and the Rhode Island (California) statute which extends jurisdiction to the limits of the Due Process Clause. At appropriate points in the exercise students are able to refer back to the introductory fact situations, the Uniform Act, a list of important citations and previous related questions. The exercise is divided into three parts, so that one part can be conveniently done at a sitting.

1.5 hours
CIV19

This Lessonette® exercise focuses on the distinctions between justification and excuse defenses. Many of the major legal scholars and commentators have distinguished justification and excuse defenses. However, the modern view often blurs the distinction. This lesson points out the principal theoretical distinctions as well as the areas of substantial confusion or controversy with respect to classification, both at common law and under the Model Penal Code. The lesson also describes those circumstances in which classification one way or the other makes a difference.

The student approaching this lesson should have a basic understanding of various defenses, both under the common law and the MPC. Working the lesson should significantly add to that student's ability to distinguish various defenses based on the classification of each with respect to justification versus excuse. In addition, the student should enhance his or her ability to articulate the theory and consequences of such classification.

30 minutes
CRIM18

This is a lesson on Kentucky primary and secondary legal research.
1 hour
LR93

This lesson explores the capacity defense to contract formation, including when a contract may be avoided because of the minority, mental incapacity, or illiteracy of one of the parties.

1.5 hours
CON15

This lesson provides an introductory overview of landlord-tenant law, including: the historical origins of non-freehold estates; basic vocabulary of landlord-tenant law, including the concept of rent; the significance of leases as a mechanism for gaining the right to use and possess land; and the conveyance and contract theories of landlord-tenant law as alternative approaches for fashioning legal rules.

40 minutes
PPL23

The lesson in landlord-tenant law addresses the doctrine of constructive eviction. It is assumed that you have a good understanding of the covenant of quiet enjoyment, which is a predicate for the doctrine of constructive eviction. Before doing this lesson, you should study the separate lesson named "Landlord and Tenant: Quiet Enjoyment," unless you are sure that you have a firm grip on the covenant of quiet enjoyment, actual evictions, and remedies for breach of quiet enjoyment.

40 minutes
PPL53

This lesson examines the duty of the landlord to deliver possession of the leased premises to the tenant. Courts have split as to whether the landlord has an implied duty to deliver actual physical possession of the property. Express lease provisions that bear on the delivery of possession are also considered. There is also a short discussion of a related topic: covenants of title in leases.

40 minutes
PPL52

This lesson in landlord-tenant law addresses the periodic tenancy, also known as the periodic estate. Topics include creation of the periodic tenancy by express agreement, creation by implication, and termination of the periodic tenancy by notice. Hybrid transactions, which combine elements of the periodic tenancy and the term of years, are also considered. A sample essay exam question is included.

40 minutes
PPL33

This lesson in landlord-tenant law addresses the covenant of quiet enjoyment. Topics include use of an express covenant of quiet enjoyment, including variations in wording; implication of the covenant; the scope of the covenant (protection against the landlord; persons claiming through the landlord; and paramount titleholders), actual eviction; and remedies for breach of quiet enjoyment.

35 minutes
PPL41

This lesson addresses the application of the statute of frauds to leases of real property. Topics include the conveyance and contract provisions of the statute; the contents of the lease document that are required to comply with the statute of frauds; the effect upon the parties when a tenant takes possession under an invalid oral arrangement; the doctrine of part performance; and the statutory exception for short-term leases.

40 minutes
PPL28

This lesson in landlord-tenant law addresses the tenancy at sufferance, also known as the estate at sufferance. A tenant at sufferance is also known as a holdover tenant. Topics include: creation of the tenancy at sufferance by express and implied agreement; the liability of the tenant at sufferance for rent and other obligations; and the landlord's choices in treating the tenant at sufferance as a trespasser or as a tenant for a new term.

30 minutes
PPL40

This tutorial in landlord-tenant law addresses the tenancy at will, also known as the estate at will. Topics include creation of the tenancy at will by express agreement, creation by implication, and termination of the tenancy at will by notice. Hybrid transactions in which one or both parties relinquish or modify their right to terminate at any moment are also considered.

35 minutes
PPL39

This lesson in landlord-tenant law covers the tenancy for years, also known as the estate for years, term for years, or term of years. The following topics are addressed: limits on the parties' choice as to duration of the term; the requirement that the term have a definite ending date; treatment of a lease to commence in the future; termination of the tenancy for years; and the use of renewal options and terms.

45 minutes
PPL27

The purpose of this exercise is to help students—especially first-year students—understand the process of legal analysis and improve their legal writing and legal analysis skills. Specifically, students will work on their ability to apply the law to the facts of a problem.

The program focuses on the four basic components of legal analysis, namely: issue, rule of law, application of the law to the facts, and conclusion (IRAC). In the first part of the exercise, the students will work with each of these components individually. In the second part, students will work with a small closed universe situation. They will be given the facts of a problem and the law appropriate to the problem and will be asked to work through the full legal analysis process.

The skills taught in this program can be used in drafting all kinds of legal documents such as memoranda of law, memoranda of points and authorities, client letters, demand/negotiation letters, and briefs. The IRAC approach is also very useful in exam taking.

The program is designed to be simple in its approach so that students can take full advantage of it at a very early stage of their law school career.

1 hour
LWR02

This CALI lesson is about Legal Encyclopedias. As one of the main types of secondary resources for legal research, Legal Encyclopedias can be useful for a variety of basic legal research tasks. This lesson will give you an overview of legal encyclopedias, explain how they are used in legal research, and run through a couple of hypotheticals using legal encyclopedias. The lesson focuses on the two legal encyclopedias covering American Law in general, Corpus Juris Secundum (CJS) and American Jurisprudence 2d (AmJur 2d) and gives some examples of state legal encyclopedias.

50 minutes
LWR40

This lesson is intended as an introduction to the basic resources for researching the law and does not cover research methods using either print or online sources. References to print or computer-based resources are added for illustration and not comprehensiveness. Using a lawyer-under-construction theme, we take the law student on as an apprentice and introduce him or her to the basic tools of legal research. Legal Research 101: The Tools of the Trade is primarily intended for first year law students. It is most appropriate for law students during their first semester and would also be useful in paralegal studies. The lesson presumes no prior knowledge of how to do legal research. It is, therefore, not intended for the advanced legal researcher, except perhaps as a refresher.

1 hour
LWR08

Choosing the most appropriate sources to fill your research need is a crucial part of your research strategy. Knowing when it is more appropriate to use print legal research sources and when it is more appropriate to use free or fee-based electronic legal research sources is important for efficient and cost effective research. This exercise will focus on the decisions you may need to make when choosing between print, free web, and fee-based electronic databases.

20 minutes
LR58

This exercise is designed to help law students develop their abilities to handle legal research assignments. Students who have some experience doing legal research or who have completed their first year legal research course will benefit the most. However, these lessons may be used to supplement the learning process for students studying legal research for the first time.

A series of tutorials lead students through situations and problems commonly given to new attorneys and student interns. Each section contains questions that test the students' responses to different situations and their understanding of the reasons behind legal research. Throughout the exercise additional information about such topics as legal ethics, malpractice, and legal bibliography is weaved into the questions through pop-up windows. Responses to particular questions may draw students into a mini-lesson, further testing their comprehension and expanding their viewpoints. The exercise begins with Brain Storming where students learn to interpret and analyze research assignments. Developing a Query Statement underscores the need to lucidly define research issues and create a list of search terms. In Documentation, students discover the benefits and necessity of keeping a research log. The techniques of strategic analysis, cost-effective research, and updating are covered in Research Process. Finally, there are a series of questions in Finishing Research that focus on learning when-to-stop. The exercises use realistic research problems and demand that students begin to think logically and practically about legal research.

1 hour
LWR07

This lesson looks at formal preliminary agreements, often titled letters of intent or memorandums of understanding. Often parties sign a formal preliminary agreement at the beginning of negotiations without the intention of being bound to the transaction as a whole prior to the completion of a formal agreement. However, the formal preliminary agreement may bind the parties to negotiate in good faith and to other obligations related to the transaction. This lesson can be worked as an introduction to letters of intent or as a review. However, prior to working this lesson, you should have an understanding of offer, acceptance and mutual assent.

20-30 minutes
CON47

This lesson deals with liability for defectively designed products and products that are defective because of an inadequate warning. It does not consider liability for defectively manufactured products, which are dealt with in the lesson Liability for Defectively Manufactured Products. It begins by comparing the two predominant tests for determining whether a product is defectively designed (the consumer expectations test and the risk/utility test), then considers the impact of warnings, including a consideration of the learned intermediary doctrine.

40 minutes
TRT29

This lesson deals with liability for defectively manufactured products. It does not consider liability for defectively designed products, or products that are defective because of an inadequate warning, which are dealt with in the lesson Liability for Defectively Designed Products. It begins by considering who can be strictly liable for a defectively manufactured product--manufacturer and subsequent sellers--then goes on to consider what kinds of products attract strict liability. Finally, it considers the key question of proof of a causal link between the defect in the product and the harm suffered by the plaintiff.

40 minutes
TRT35

One of the difficult common law issues in defamation was the distinction between libel and slander. This lesson explains the differences between the two types of defamatory statements. Material is provided on the damage requirements of both. This lesson is part of a series about defamation. One should review the lesson on Basic Issues in Defamation and Privileges before working with this exercise. After finishing this one, the exercise on Constitutional Issues in Defamation should be covered.

30 minutes
TRT30

This lesson examines the law of licenses, specifically as that law intersects the law of easements. The lesson first defines licenses and contrasts that definition with the definition of easements. It then explores the circumstances in which a license, normally revocable, becomes irrevocable and explains that an irrevocable license essentially gives the parties the same rights and duties as an easement would.

20 minutes
PPL48

This lesson will examine the life estate, the shortest freehold estate in land recognized by Anglo-American law. This lesson covers: the definition of the life estate; how the life estate is created along with associated problems; and legal characteristics of the life estate, including the complex legal relationship of the owner of a life estate to the holders of future interests in the land following the life estate.

40 minutes
PPL30

Liquidated damages clauses are provisions in a contract in which the parties agree on the amount of damages to be paid in the event of breach instead of having a court decide that issue. This lesson explores whether liquidated damages clauses are enforceable under the tests used in the Restatement, the UCC, and a California statute. The lesson can be run either as an introduction to liquidated damages or as a review after you have completed your study.

45 minutes
CON54

This lesson provides a thorough overview of Louisiana Primary Legal Resources. It covers resources that will be familiar to legal researchers from other jurisdictions and examines resources that are unique to Louisiana.

1.5 hours
LR84

Louisiana is a mixed legal jurisdiction with strong ties to French and Spanish Civil Law. There are differences between the civil law practiced in Louisiana and the common law practiced in the other 49 states. Although some of those differences have been bridged, some of the secondary materials discussed in this lesson vary greatly from the secondary materials of other jurisdictions.

This CALI lesson is designed to familiarize the reader with Louisiana secondary legal research materials. You will learn about the various secondary source materials and how to properly use both print and online versions of the materials.

30-45 minutes
LR95

This lesson takes a look at the the Mailbox Rule. The offeror, as master of the offer, may insist that the offeree accept by means of the mail (or some similar form delivery, such as e-mail). Alternatively, the offer may not specify a means of acceptance and the offeree may decide to use the mail, where such acceptance would be permissible in accordance with the offer. This lesson sets out the ramifications of use of the mail (as well as e-mail and facsimiles, which follow the same rule). The general attributes of offer and acceptance are covered in other lessons.

30 minutes
CON62

This lesson concerns Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137 (1803), a difficult and important case in Constitutional Law. It is contained in every Constitutional Law casebook and usually appears as one of the first cases. This lesson is designed to assist students to understand Marbury v. Madison and its relevance.

30-40 minutes
CST05

This lesson teaches you about the operation of Marketable Title Acts which are also known as Marketable Record Title Acts. The focus is on statues based on the Model Act. You should already be familiar with recording acts before attempting this lesson.

30 minutes
PPL61

This lesson provides an introduction to research using primary sources of Maryland law, including case reporters and digests, statutes, legislative history, agency regulations and decisions, and attorney general opinions.

2.5 to 3 hours
LR46

This lesson covers secondary resources specific to the State of Maryland.

90 minutes
LR138

This lesson introduces major Massachusetts secondary sources to the researcher. After this lesson, the student will be familiar with major Massachusetts practice materials and know how to find other state specific sources, such as forms, treatises, manuals, legal periodicals, and news sources.

1 hour
LR132

This lesson provides an introduction to legal research in Massachusetts primary law sources. You will explore Massachusetts state statutes, constitution, cases, digest, and regulations in the context of a simple legal problem and answer follow-up questions.

45 minutes
LR110

Looseleaf services can be a rich source of primary and secondary source material for particular areas of law. In this lesson you will learn how looseleaf sets are organized, what features are commonly available, and how to navigate a set while doing research.

30 minutes
LWR37

This lesson covers medical research, as opposed to health law research. This lesson will emphasize resources that are free of charge, although it should be noted that there are also many fee-based services that provide the full text of medical resources; among these is Westlaw's "Medical Litigator," unveiled in early 2007, which provides some access to medical information.

45 - 60 minutes
LR68

This Lessonette® exercise is one of several addressing the offense of criminal attempt as set forth in the Model Penal Code. In this lesson, students consider broad concepts relating to the law of attempts, such as what mental state, if any, should be required for punishing an incomplete offense (with reference to theories of punishment), how the punishment of an attempt should compare to that for a completed offense, and how certain crimes not so labeled are actually particular kinds of attempt offenses. It then examines the mens rea for an attempted offense, highlighting the distinction between knowledge and purpose, and further distinguishing purpose as to conduct from purpose as to result.

20 minutes
CRIM27

Like the other Lessonette® exercises about mens rea, this lesson examines the mental state of knowledge as set forth in the Model Penal Code. It places knowledge in a continuum of mental states and seeks to familiarize students with the rationale for requiring knowledge and for punishing knowledge crimes differently from other offenses. The lesson also presents material to demonstrate how knowledge, a highly subjective mental state, can be proven through inferences of various kinds, and how proof of knowledge of a result might differ from proof of knowledge of conduct.

20 minutes
CRIM07

This Lessonette® exercise examines the mental state of negligence as set forth in the Model Penal Code. In particular, the lesson presents some material on the rationale for punishing at negligence level (or not), as well as examining the concept of "failure to perceive." Finally, the lesson examines the nature of the risk at issue in negligence, drawing particular attention to the Code terms "substantial" and "unjustifiable," and to the simultaneously subjective and objective aspects of the Code's definition of that risk.

20 minutes
CRIM06

In this Lessonette® exercise, students examine the mens rea of purpose as set forth in the Model Penal Code. The lesson contains some material that allow students to see purpose in relation to other levels of culpability, and to recognize and understand purpose as the highest and most subjective level of culpability. The lesson explores the Code term "conscious object," and also presents opportunities to consider the theoretical significance of requiring purpose as a condition of imposing criminal punishment, in terms of both retribution and negligence. Finally, the lesson examines certain rules permitting presumptions and inferences that ease the difficulty of proving purpose to a factfinder.

20 minutes
CRIM04

This Lessonette® exercise considers the mens rea of recklessness as defined in the Model Penal Code. After some material on the idea of a minimum level of culpability as a condition of punishment at common law, the lesson examines how recklessness operates as that minimum level in the Code. The lesson attempts to distinguish those mental states associated with greater and lesser culpability from that of "conscious disregard." It also examines the nature of the risk at issue in recklessness, drawing particular attention to the Code terms "substantial" and "unjustifiable," and to the simultaneously subjective and objective aspects of the Code's definition of that risk.

20 minutes
CRIM05

This lesson is designed to provide students with both an overview of Michigan primary resources and a "how to" guide to researching various Michigan primary resources. These resources include the Constitution, public acts and statutes, legislative history, Michigan court structure and reporters, digests, citators, court rules, administrative law, and the unique Michigan Uniform System of Citation.

While the lesson aims to introduce the specifics of researching Michigan law to a researcher already familiar with the basics of legal research, it will also be helpful to first year law students trying to understand those basics through the process of Michigan-specific research.

1.5 hours
LR106

This is an elementary lesson that introduces the concept of default rules in the Model Penal Code. It focuses on several sections of MPC § 2.02 relating to minimum culpability requirements. After completing this lesson, students should understand that, except in rare cases, the MPC requires a state of mind as to every material element of an offense, and that generally recklessness is the minimum level of culpability required. Students will also obtain a working knowledge of the terminology of the MPC, including elements, material elements and the various states of mind. They will also be introduced to the hierarchy of states of mind expressed in § 2.02(5). This lesson uses sample statutes and scenarios to allow students to practice applying the default rules and hopefully to provide an understanding of why default rules are desirable.

35 minutes
CRIM22

This lesson is designed to familiarize the user with materials used in Minnesota legal research. The focus of the lesson is Minnesota's primary source materials.

45 minutes
LR114

This lesson guides the user through Minnesota Secondary Sources. The user will begin the lesson by reviewing the difference between primary and secondary sources. After the review, the user will learn about sources including legal encyclopedia, digests, and treatises. Also covered in the lesson are various practice materials, such as jury instructions, continuing legal education materials, and form books.

45 minutes
LR127

This lesson covers the Mississippi constitution, statutes and legislation, cases, court system and rules, administrative materials, and muncipal laws. It was designed for those who have a general knowledge of researching primary legal sources.

60-95 minutes
LR135

This lesson will cover the range of secondary materials available for the research of Mississippi law.  As a smaller state, there are less extensive secondary sources available than are available for other states.  However, the materials that do exist provide a deep and rich body of literature for assisting in the research of legal issues in the state.

The lesson will present a fact pattern modeled on a true-to-life incident, and use that fact pattern to assist you in becoming familiar with the overall contours of secondary sources in Mississippi.  There will be questions interspersed throughout the lesson.

30-45 minutes
LR133

This lesson is designed to familiarize law students with Missouri's primary law sources. It gives them basic information about locating Missouri's constitution, statutes, bills, legislative history, court opinions, and administrative regulations. No prerequisite knowledge is required to follow this lesson.

1 hour
LR131

This lesson addresses the oft-stated maxim that ignorance or mistake of law is no defense and examines its relevance under the Model Penal Code. Using sample statutes and scenarios, it demonstrates that, as a general principle, no state of mind is required as to whether a defendant's conduct constitutes an offense. The Lesson explores the policies behind the rule and its "reasonable reliance" exceptions. Students have an opportunity to practice applying the various exceptions and to gain an understanding of the burden of proof regarding the reasonable reliance defense.

25 minutes
CRIM25

This is an advanced lesson. It assumes the student has the ability to identify the state of mind required for each element of an offense and defense based on MPC default rules of construction and has an understanding of basic principles of mistake set out in § 2.04. Using scenarios involving abandonment in burglary, choice of evils and self-defense, the lesson demonstrates how ignorance or mistake as to an element of a defense is treated under the MPC. This lesson relies heavily on MPC Commentary to explain the rules and policy behind mistake as to defenses. It carries through the theme of punishing defendants at the level of their personal culpability.

30 minutes
CRIM30

This Lessonette® exercise, which assumes basic understanding of the default rules of construction, introduces the concept of mistake under the Model Penal Code. It is fairly basic in its coverage. The lesson introduces the MPC approach to mistake and relates it to common law doctrines. Using sample statutes and scenarios, it shows the relationship between the required state of mind and mistake and demonstrates how reasonableness is not generally required in MPC analysis. It then covers the difficult concepts addressed in § 2.04(2) (guilt of lesser offenses where defendant makes a "culpable" mistake) and explores the policy underpinnings of this rule. At the conclusion of the lesson, students should have an understanding of how the MPC deals with claims of ignorance and mistake. The lesson provides a separate section of review/practice questions.

35 minutes
CRIM24

Mistake is one of the hardest defenses to analyze. After breaking the subject down into a number of different categories of mistake, the lesson focuses on the elements of mutual mistake. The concept of mutual mistake is then explored through a particular case, Lenawee County Board of Health v. Messerly, and a particularly problematic area, releases.

1.5 hours
CON18

One of the limitations on the damages a plaintiff can recover for breach of contract is that the plaintiff has a duty to keep the damages as low as reasonably possible. This lesson explores this principle, which is called mitigation. The lesson can be run either as an introduction to mitigation or as a review after you have completed your study.

40 minutes
CON59

This lesson explores discharge of a contract by modification, both at common law and under the UCC. It can be run either as an introduction to the study of modification or as a review after you have completed your study.

1 hour
CON69

This lesson lays the foundation for the advanced study of mortgages and financing that is based on the security of mortgage, mortgage variants, and mortgage substitutes.

45 minutes
RE03

This lesson deals with the rules governing the liability of multiple defendants in torts cases. It begins by examining joint and several liability and the rules governing contribution between tortfeasors, then moves on to consider why the majority of states has now modified the rules of joint and several liability. It also contrasts the different results produced by joint and several liability on the one hand and several liability on the other in cases involving insolvent defendants and settling defendants.

35 minutes
TRT34

This lesson explores one of the fundamental requirements for contract formation, mutual assent. Mutual Assent is a mutual manifestation of assent to the terms of an agreement. This lesson looks at how parties establish mutual assent, including manifestations of mutual assent by words and conduct and the effect of misunderstanding. However, the attributes of offer and acceptance are covered in other lessons. This lesson concludes with a sample analysis exercise involving mutual assent.

40 minutes
CON37

The topic of this lesson is one of the fundamental components of contract formation—mutuality of obligation or commitment. The lesson includes a discussion of illusory promises.

25 minutes
CON21

This exercise introduces Nebraska primary legal materials, focusing on the Legislative and Judicial branches. Upon the completion of this exercise, users should have a working knowledge of the Legislative and Judicial processes in Nebraska. Users will be able to identify the resources available from each branch, what is found in each resource, and how to properly update the resources.

45 minutes
LR69

This lesson examines the four traditional negative easements of air, light, support and access to water from an artificial stream, as well as three modern negative easements: easements of view, solar easements, and conservation easements.

25 minutes
PPL17

The traditional division of negligence into duty, breach of duty, causation (cause in fact and proximate cause), and damages provides the structure of this lesson. The student will find navigation to an individual section or even to an individual area (such as res ipsa loquitur within breach of duty) easy. The most likely use of the lesson is as a review and test of understanding following classroom discussion, but the questions can also be used to preview that discussion. Because the lesson is lengthy, the student is invited to divide it into at least two sessions. The lesson is designed to reinforce the student's understanding of the basic law of negligence, and then to lead far beyond the elements of the tort into factual applications, policy considerations, and argument evaluation.

Numerous hypertext links and citations to authorities invite the student to consideration of differing views and to further research into the area. The lesson often engages the student in a "dialogue" on the merit of a response.

0.5 - 1 hour for each section.
TRT05

This lesson is an overview of the sources for finding and updating Nevada legal materials. Also, it describes materials used in Nevada Legal Research.

45 minutes
LR61

This lesson provides an overview of the primary resources involved in New Jersey legal research. These include statutes, administrative regulations, administrative registers, administrative decisions, court decisions, court rules, and the state constitution.

1 hour
LR128

This lesson is intended to acquaint students with basic information regarding sources of primary law in New York state: case law, statutes and regulations. It can be used to supplement instruction in introductory Research and Writing courses or as a freestanding introduction to doing New York legal research.

1 hour
LR67

This CALI lesson will outline some of the most common online news sources sought and how to find them. Many of the skills used to find some of the more common online news sources can be transferable to finding other specialized sources.

45 minutes
LR45

This lesson on North Carolina primary legal research materials will provide an introduction on how to locate North Carolina legal materials including North Carolina constitutional provisions, statutes, case law, regulations, and municipal provisions. In addition to discussing how to locate these materials in print, we will also discuss how to locate them in the major databases and free and low cost databases.

1 hour
LR120

This lesson is designed to give a basic overview of secondary sources used in North Carolina legal research. Secondary resources are commentary on the law written by legal professionals or legal publishers. They are useful for finding background information and citations to primary resources, but it is important to remember that secondary resources are not the law.

For more information on primary sources used in North Carolina legal research, please review the CALI lesson North Carolina Primary Resources.

1 hour
LR122

This lesson focuses on the distinction between invitees and licensees, and the duty owed by an occupier to each category of entrant. It includes problems designed to test student understanding of the distinction between licensees and invitees, and to highlight the differences between the duties owed to each.

40 minutes
TRT31

This lesson is concerned with the liability of occupiers of premises to trespassers on those premises. It begins by considering who is a trespasser for these purposes, before moving on to consider the content of the duty owed by occupiers to trespassers. The special case of child trespassers is given special consideration.

40 minutes
TRT14

This exercise deals with offer, an essential element of the bargaining process. There are basically three requirements to establish an offer: (1) intent; (2) definiteness; and (3) communication to the offeree.

40 minutes
CON39

The purpose of this lesson is to familiarize the learner with Ohio legal research materials. The lesson will focus on primary source materials in Ohio, including case law, statutes, administrative materials, and court rules.

45 minutes
LR78

This lesson gives a brief explanation of secondary sources and then examines the most frequently used sources in Ohio. Explanations of print and online sources are integrated and alternate approaches to finding material are also explored.

45 minutes
LR100

This lesson will introduce you to important secondary sources for Oklahoma legal research and help you develop strategies for using secondary sources to research Oklahoma legal questions. This lesson is intended to supplement the CALI Lesson on Oklahoma primary sources. In addition to the important Oklahoma secondary sources covered in this lesson, researchers should also be aware of secondary resources that are not Oklahoma specific. For information on secondary resources generally, see the CALI Lesson "Introduction to Secondary Resources."

45 minutes
LR121

In the criminal law, culpability can be premised upon either an "act" or (in appropriate cases) an "omission" to act. In this lesson, we examine the concept of culpability for omissions, and we explore the limits of criminal culpability. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and who wish to further refine their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
CRIM34

This lesson deals with option contracts and firm offers, both of which result in irrevocable offers. The existence of an offer is often an essential element of the bargaining process. Although most offers are revocable, sometimes the offeree's power of acceptance is irrevocable through the formation of an option contract. This lesson will look at formation of an option contract through part performance or tender, a signed writing supported by consideration, statutory firm offers, and detrimental reliance.

30 minutes
CON41

This lesson provides an overview of Contract Law, including the sources of Contract Law. The lesson can be run either as an introduction to Contract Law or as a review any time during or after your study of Contract Law.

45 minutes
CON60

This lesson is designed to provide you with an overview of the religion clauses (which include both the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause) of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. The lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and who wish to refine their knowledge of these clauses.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
CST07

Prof. Lawrence Wilkins discusses Palsgraf v. Long Island RR Co.

Download:
11:53 minutes
TRT05P

This topic is also covered in Prof. Burnham’s CALI lesson The Parol Evidence Rule

Download:
16:54 minutes
CON06P

A hundred years ago, a law professor said of the parol evidence rule, “There are few things darker than this or fuller of subtle difficulties.” Many law students who have studied the rule would agree with that assessment. Hopefully this exercise will illuminate the rule. It does so by examining the functions served by the rule, taking the user through a series of questions that can be used to resolve most issues involving the application of the rule. The Uniform Commercial Code enactment of the rule is examined in detail.

1 hour
CON06

This lesson will provide an interactive overview of Pennsylvania Primary Resources. Follow Will Penn as he learns to research Pennsylvania's Constitution, Statutes, Legislative History, Administrative Regulations, Case Law, Citators, Court Rules & Briefs.

1 hour
LR54

Introduction to Pennsylvania Secondary Legal Resources. This lessonette walks students through the use of Pennsylvania-specific: legal encyclopedias, forms, practice materials, treatises, and legal periodicals. From how to choose the right source, to how to use them, the student will learn the basics about how secondary sources can help their research needs.

1 hour
LR70

In legal research, it is often easier to begin with secondary sources rather than plunge directly into the search for primary legal authority on your topic. You may want to use secondary sources to find a summary of an area of law, to scope out a legal field to identify more precise topics for your research, and/or as a way to find (through citations) specific references to primary authority that is relevant to your research.

This lesson covers two of the most important external finding tools--periodicals indexes and library catalogs--that you can use to help find secondary sources relevant to your research. In the course of this lesson, you will learn how these tools are organized, and how to use them to identify periodical articles and books on a topic.

1 hour
LWR34

Plagiarism is serious, especially for law students This lesson will explain what constitutes plagiarism, how to avoid plagiarizing, and will offer opportunities for students to test their understanding of plagiarism.

45 minutes
LWR63

This lesson presents an introduction to the doctrine that the performance of a pre-existing duty, or a promise to perform such a duty, does not constitute a sufficient consideration to make a promise binding. Through questions based on a series of hypothetical cases, underlying reasons for the doctrine are considered, as well as its ramifications in various contexts. Coverage includes: the performance of duties owed to the promise or third parties as consideration; modifications on one side of executory contracts; substituted contracts following rescission; executory accords; satisfaction; liquidated claims and offers to settle unliquidated claims.

2 to 3 hours
CON01

This lesson has been revised to reflect the December 1, 2006 amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, as they were re-written effective December 1, 2007.

This exercise is in three parts. First, the student surveys the basic law of preclusion (both claim preclusion and issue preclusion) to test and to solidify understanding of the area. The questions explore the elements of the doctrines, such as the requirements of a final judgment and necessary decision of an issue, as applied to various fact situations. Hypertext is available at all times for quick review or checking of the elements. The second part of the exercise becomes more complex as it turns to heavy emphasis on the policies behind issue preclusion. The student analyzes each fact situation from two perspectives: Blackletter Bart, who takes a rule-bound approach to issue preclusion, and Functional Felicia, who takes a policy-oriented approach to issue preclusion. Third, the student answers questions developing the abandonment by the courts of the requirement of mutuality for issue preclusion. Both defensive collateral estoppel and offensive collateral estoppel, from the perspectives of both the plaintiff and the defendant, are analyzed.

1.5 hours
CIV17

Preemption Checking determines if an idea for a journal note or paper is original. This lesson explains the sources and process of conducting a pre-emption check.

30 minutes
LR102

This lesson is designed to familiarize law students with legal materials that can be used when preparing for litigation. Rather than creating from scratch many of the documents needed in preparing for a trial, it is much more efficient to find sample documents that can help guide you. Students will be introduced to the various sources that attorneys turn to, including sample forms, pleadings, interrogatories, and other useful resources.

45 minutes
LR118

Professors Brown and Grohman, are the authors of many CALI lessons. Additionally, both teach 1L courses. In this podcast they share their experiences and insights on time management issues for law school students, preparing for class, how to brief a case, research tips applicable for 1L writing assignments (and the eventual practice of law), how to develop an understanding of the law, and techniques and tips for studying and preparing for the final exam.

In this podcast Professors Grohman and Brown mention several additional resources students may want to review. They are:

  1. Joe Landsberger's website: www.studygs.net/schedule
  2. Cornell University:'s list of study resources: http://lsc.sas.cornell.edu/Sidebars/Study_Skills_Resources/SKResources.html
  3. Dennis Tonsing, 1000 Days to the Bar (Hein & Co., Inc. 2003). Available at Amazon.com

Download:

24:33 minutes
LCS08P

This exercise introduces one of the most significant vehicles for acquisition of an easement without the agreement of the servient landowner. Prescriptive Easements (also known as Easements by Prescription) arise out of open, notorious, adverse and continuous use of another person's land for the statutorily determined period of time. Through this use, a person essentially "adversely possesses" an easement over another's land. This tutorial introduces the user to the significant hurdles that face a claimant of an easement by prescription.

20 minutes
PPL37

This exercise provides a general introduction to constitutional limitations on the assignment of burdens of proof and the creation of evidentiary presumptions.

35 minutes
CRIM10

The purpose of this CALI lesson is to guide students who are not experienced in researching private international law questions.

45 minutes
LR77

The requirement of "probable cause" is an integral part of the Fourth Amendment. The Amendment specifically provides that a warrant may not issue except on probable cause. In addition, some exceptions to the warrant requirement necessitate a finding of probable cause. This lesson examines the concept of probable cause under the Fourth Amendment. This lesson is intended for students who have studied the concept of probable cause in class and wish to refine their knowledge and understanding.

25 minutes (45 minutes with the concluding essay)
CRMPRO03

This series of three lessons consists chiefly of hypothetical factual situations designed to reinforce the student’s skills in applying the major principles and precepts of basic property law. The student is expected to determine the correct answers by reasoning from hypothetical facts through the applicable precepts and principles, rather than merely being able to identify the rules that apply. The program responds to student answers by suggesting, in windows on the screen, reasons which make the correct answers correct and the wrong answers incorrect. Use of these programs is even more effective in discussion groups of two or three, where the reasoning can be aired before answering.

2.5 hours
PPL01

This series of three lessons consists chiefly of hypothetical factual situations designed to reinforce the student’s skills in applying the major principles and precepts of basic property law. The student is expected to determine the correct answers by reasoning from hypothetical facts through the applicable precepts and principles, rather than merely being able to identify the rules that apply. The program responds to student answers by suggesting, in windows on the screen, reasons which make the correct answers correct and the wrong answers incorrect. Use of these programs is even more effective in discussion groups of two or three, where the reasoning can be aired before answering.

2.5 hours
PPL02

This series consists chiefly of hypothetical factual situations designed to reinforce the student's skills in applying the major principles and precepts of basic property law. The student is expected to determine the correct answers by reasoning from hypothetical facts through the applicable precepts and principles, rather than merely being able to identify the rules that apply. The program responds to student answers by suggesting, in windows on the screen, reasons which make the correct answers correct and the wrong answers incorrect. Use of these programs is even more effective in discussion groups of two or three, where the reasoning can be aired before answering.

2.5 hours
PPL03

Punctuation and grammar mistakes can hurt your grades and cost you a job. This lesson reviews the most common writing errors students make and explains the basic rules that will help you avoid mistakes.

50 minutes
LWR26

Most students do all right with commas, periods, sentence fragments, and verb agreement. But what about colons, dashes, passive voice, and parallelism? This lesson covers several advanced topics in grammar and punctuation for the legal writer who is ready to move beyond the basics.

1 hour
LWR52

This exercise introduces students to the four standard theories of punishment, retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation. It familiarizes students with the basic features of each theory in the context of particular statutory provisions and hypotheticals drawn from the law of crimes (substantive criminal law) and the law of punishments (sentencing law).

30 minutes
CRIM11

This lesson will teach you how to read information from legislative history, the next step after gathering the materials. Additionally, this lesson will help you find just the intent behind specific language of a law or statute.

45 minutes
LR137

Professors Brown and Grohman, authors of several CALI lessons on covenants, give students a framework to approach studying the material and offer real-life applications of the doctrines. They also discuss the interrelatedness of the law and explain why it's an artificial distinction (and one that complicates learning) to study property issues separate from civil procedure issues, for example.

Download:
13:05 minutes
PPL55P

This lesson will introduce you to real estate brokers and familiarize you with: 1) the traditional relationship between real estate brokers and the parties to real estate transactions; 2) the duties that arise from that relationship; and 3) the effects of the breach of that duty.

30 to 45 minutes
RE01

This lesson is designed to introduce students to the methods by which real estate brokers are compensated. Before beginning this lesson, you should complete Real Estate Brokers 1: Traditional Agency Relationships.

30 minutes
RE02

This lesson contains problems and questions concerning the Reasonable Person standard for negligence actions. The central issue in negligence is the duty of care. For the typical adult, the standard is the Reasonable Person of Ordinary Prudence under similar circumstances. This lesson will discuss that issue by focusing on the meaning of:


  • Reasonable person
  • Ordinary prudence
  • Similar circumstances

35 minutes
TRT06

This lesson focuses upon the purpose, interpretation, and application of recording statutes. The lesson should help students understand the following: what a recording act is and what functions a recording act serves; what kinds of interests are covered by recording acts, and what types of persons may claim the protection of a recording act; the three types of recording acts used in American jurisdictions and the differences between them; how to interpret the language of a typical recording act (and to distinguish between the three basic types); and how to apply a recording act to resolve conflicting claims to the same land.

1.5 hours
PPL09

This lesson will give you some background about Regional Organizations, collections of countries, organized by region, engaged in collaborative work toward some common goal. You will learn to find the documents of some of the most important Regional Organizations on the web.

45 minutes
LR90

This lesson introduces students to one of the constitutional issues that can arise as a result of environmental and natural resources regulation: regulatory takings under the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. It begins by giving students an overview of regulatory taking claims, their distinction from physical takings of private property, and some of the rules that apply in evaluating whether a regulatory taking has occurred. It then provides examples of how regulatory taking issues can arise in environmental and natural resources regulation, using the Clean Water Act's Section 404 program and the Endangered Species Act's Section 9 prohibitions as examples.

This lesson assumes that students have been exposed to regulatory taking issues in class but does not require detailed knowledge of regulatory taking law. This lesson also assumes that students are generally familiar with the federal Clean Water Act and Endangered Species Act., although it also supplies the immediately necessary information about both statutes.

45 minutes
ENV17

This lesson is the fourth of several addressing the various issues relating to the concurrent ownership of property. It is designed to introduce Property students to the rights and obligations co-tenants have when dealing with property held by a concurrent estate. The lesson addresses each respective tenant’s possessory rights, obligations for costs and expenses relating to the subject property, potential for ousting another co-tenant, and liabilities in the event of having ousted another co-tenant.

1.5 hours
PPL29

This lesson explores the remedy of reliance, which can be available both 1) where there is no contract and 2) where there is a contract and the non-breaching party chooses an alternative to the expectancy measure of damages. The lesson can be run either as an introduction to reliance or as a review after you have completed your study.

1 hour
CON52

Even though the thing speaks for itself, this lesson speaks more about res ipsa loquitur. This tort doctrine becomes an immediate favorite of all who hear its mellifluous name, but the doctrine has several nuances that do not speak so clearly, such as the circumstances when it applies, how common carriers are covered, and how it is conveyed to the jury. This lesson explores all of those nuances.

25 minutes
TRT32

This lesson will familiarize students with the use of procedural forms designed to assist in litigation practice.

30-40 minutes
LR107

This lesson provides an introduction to locating and utilizing transactional forms.

40 minutes
LR103

This CALI lesson will instruct students about issues associated with California ballot measures including locating documents, identifying legislative intent, and examining legal challenges.

1 hour
LR99

This is an introductory lesson on Canadian legal research. This particular lesson treats research techniques and sources from the perspective that you are faced with a case based problem. A second separate lesson treats Canadian legal research from the perspective that you have a statute based problem. The lessons assume no knowledge of the areas, but treat basic research in Canadian federal statutes, administrative material, and cases. It is assumed that readings and these exercises are in preparation for doing research with a basic Canadian legal collection, and that the collection might simply consist of Lexis, Quicklaw, or use of the Internet. Paper publications optionally used, include the Statutes of Canada, 1984 - , the Revised Statutes of Canada 1985, and the Canada Gazette Part II (1987-).

1.25 hours
LWR12

This is an introductory lesson on Canadian legal research. This particular lesson treats research techniques and sources from the perspective that you are faced with a statute based problem. A second separate lesson treats Canadian legal research from the perspective that you have a case based problem. The lessons assume no knowledge of the areas, but treat basic research in Canadian federal statutes, administrative material, and cases. It is assumed that readings and these exercises are in preparation for doing research with a basic Canadian legal collection, and that the collection might simply consist of Lexis, Quicklaw, or use of the Internet. Paper publications optionally used, include the Statutes of Canada, 1984 - , the Revised Statutes of Canada 1985, and the Canada Gazette Part II (1987-).

1 hour
LWR11

This lesson will introduce you to methods of finding and updating federal executive orders. It assumes no prior knowledge of the subject, and is therefore appropriate for any law student who needs to learn how to research federal executive orders.

30 minutes
LWR22

This exercise will introduce students to the federal legislative process and the various congressional documents in a legislative history. Students will be introduced to free legislative databases on the Internet. Through various cases, students will see how the courts use congressional documents to interpret laws.

20 minutes
LWR14

This lesson will acquaint you with the sources of international environmental law, and give you strategies for researching it.

30-45 minutes
LR72

This lesson will introduce the student to researching legal ethics. The student will be introduced to the history of legal ethics governance and will learn about the development and adoption of the Model Code, Model Rules, and state and local variations. Students will learn the difference between command, permissive, and aspirational language. Finally, students will learn about the research process by working through a hypothetical designed to introduce them to a number of resources.

20 minutes
LR43

This lesson will assist the student both in reviewing effective legal research techniques and learning something about an area of law not often studied in law school: Social Security disability. To accomplish this the student will examine a real life fact scenario in order to navigate the primary and secondary resources in this area.

1 hour
LR136

This lesson will provide students with some general background on U.S. immigration law and help them get familiar with basic immigration law research. Students should have a fundamental knowledge of legal research tools but do not need to have any background in immigration law to proceed with the lesson. Ideally, the lesson would work best while also learning about Immigration Law while taking a class in the subject.

40 minutes
LR53

This lesson will explain uniform laws and model codes. It provides an overview of how uniform laws are created and shows researchers how to locate uniform laws, drafters' commentary, state versions of uniform laws, and cases interpreting them.

25 minutes
LWR25

This lesson explores the remedy of restitution, which can be available both where there is no contract and where there is a contract and the non-breaching party chooses an alternative to the expectancy measure of damages. The lesson can be run either as an introduction to restitution or as a review after you have completed your study.

1 hour
CON43

Effective December 1, 2006, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure were amended to reflect changes in discovery resulting from the electronic storage of information. CALI's lessons do not yet reflect these amendments. As each lesson is revised to reflect the amended rules, the lesson's catalog description will be updated to enable students and faculty to easily tell which lessons include the amended rules.

This lesson is intended to allow students to review joinder of claims and parties under the Federal Rules. The exercise uses a construction project litigation as the basis for the questions. The litigation grows gradually, adding claims and parties along the way. At each step, the student is asked questions about the propriety of joining the claim and/or the party.

The lesson does not always give a direct response to the student’s answer to the question. In many cases, the student is led through further inquiries to test the basis of the initial response.

30 minutes
CIV11

This lesson introduces students to the concepts of ripeness and mootness. This lesson is geared to students who have studied these concepts in class (perhaps some time ago in their constitutional law classes) and wish to delve into the subject more deeply.

45 minutes
REM30

This lesson takes a look at the treatment of damaged and destroyed goods and how the U.C.C. allocates the risk of loss for such occurrences. Since casualties to goods do occur, there must be a mechanism for determining which party will suffer the loss. The party which will suffer the loss is said to bear the risk of loss of the goods. This lesson sets out the basic rules for determining which party bears the risk of loss in sales transactions in cases where there is no breach (UCC 2-509) and examines the effect of breach on the allocation of risk (UCC 2-510).

55 minutes
CON78

This lesson deals with the respective roles of judge and jury in deciding a torts case. It considers the procedural devices used (primarily by defendants) in an attempt to keep the case away from the jury and to provide the basis for an appeal.

45 minutes
TRT25

This lesson is designed to introduce the novice to the essential concepts of the common law Rule Against Perpetuities. It is presumed the reader has a basic understanding of estates and future interests. This lesson is designed, also, to help the student develop an analytical approach to solve problems arising under the rule.

1.75 hours
PPL34

Professors Brown and Grohman offer tips for mastering this complicated doctrine and explain the real-world reasons why students and attorneys need to understand the rule against perpetuities. This podcast discusses material covered in greater depth in Prof. Grohman's related lessons:


  • Rule Against Perpetuities 1: Common Law Rule Against Perpetuities

  • Rule Against Perpetuities 2: Reforms - Cy Pres and Wait-and-See Doctrines

  • Rule Against Perpetuities 3: Reforms - Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities


Download:

9:44 minutes
PPL34P

This lesson's overall plan is to introduce students to the basic principles involved with two common modifications to the common law Rule Against Perpetuities: Wait-and-See and Cy Pres. The exercise assumes the student is familiar with Possessory Estates, Future Interests, and the common law Rule Against Perpetuities; it is suggested students work through those exercises first.

1.25 hours
PPL44

This lesson is an introduction to the Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities. As such, it addresses the basic concepts a first year Property student is likely to encounter when analyzing this statute.

45-60 minutes
PPL42

This exercise will introduce you to the quasi-legislative process known as rulemaking. It will familiarize you with the publication system and with the sources you will access to find and update regulations. The exercise includes several images of Federal Register and Code of Federal Regulations pages, and links to regulatory information on the Government Printing Office's homepage. The exercise is designed to augment a substantive Administrative Law Course or an Advanced Legal Research class.

55 minutes
LWR19

This lesson was removed at the end of 2013. It is outdated but is currently being revised.

This lesson covers the basic issues and arguments in same-sex marriage litigation. However, this area of the law is changing rapidly and the most recent outcomes of the arguments are not yet included.

This lesson addresses the legal ramifications of same-sex relationships, stresses comprehension of the arguments regarding the opposite sex requirement for marriage, and includes the various schemes states have used to address the controversies. Additionally, this lesson contains material relating to transgendered individuals who marry and international perspectives. It can be used as class preparation, supplement, or review.

This lesson has been updated to reflect changes in the law through April 15, 2009.

55 minutes
FAM05

The subject of this lesson is satisfaction clauses. Satisfaction clauses require special attention because they could operate as illusory promises. The object of this lesson is to learn 1) to distinguish illusory promises from enforceable satisfaction clauses, and 2) to determine whether courts will apply an objective or subjective standard of satisfaction.

25 minutes
CON22

This lesson assumes you are familiar with the requirement of consideration. Specifically, it assumes familiarity with the rule that ordinarily, a promise is legally binding only if that promise is supported by consideration.

The topic of this lesson is one of the exceptions to this general rule. Historically, one situation where consideration was not required to create a binding contract was when the promise was made "under seal."

25 minutes
CON23

This is a Lessonette® exercise dealing with the basic justification defense of self-defense. Most of us would name self-defense as the primary justification defense; and, it is perhaps the most common or familiar of all defenses. Yet self-defense has roots in other defenses at early common law. Therefore, this lesson begins with a consideration of those roots. Moreover, there is considerable overlap between the various defenses, even when one agrees on classification. Thus, understanding the basics of self-defense is essential to understanding many or all of the justification defenses. The purpose of this lesson is to present very simply the elements of self-defense. Even a student who is just beginning the study of defenses should be comfortable working this lesson.

25 minutes
CRIM17

This exercise provides an overview of the sources of American substantive criminal law. Particular attention is paid to the Model Penal Code and the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines.

10 minutes
CRIM14

In the process of legal research, primary authority is the law in your jurisdiction, which comes directly from a legislative body, court, or administrative agency.

This lesson on South Carolina primary source materials covers the South Carolina Constitution; South Carolina state and local laws (Legislative); South Carolina administrative agency regulations and other executive materials (Executive); and, South Carolina appellate court rules and decisions (Judicial).

30 minutes
LR97

The principal remedies for breach of contract are specific performance and money damages. This lesson explores the circumstances in which a court is likely to award specific performance as a remedy. The lesson can be run either as an introduction to specific performance or as a review after you have completed your study.

30 minutes
CON55

A critical issue that arises in many administrative cases is the question of constitutional standing to litigate. At its most basic, standing is the requirement that a litigant must have a sufficient interest in the outcome of the litigation in order to be entitled to sue. This lesson provides an introduction to constitutional standing issues and provides the basis for more in depth review in subsequent lessons. The lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and who wish to further refine their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM17

This lesson examines several status issues that arise in standing cases. In a prior lesson, we examined two contexts in which individuals might seek standing: taxpayer standing and citizen standing. In this lesson, we examine two other situations that may arise: the right of associations to sue on behalf of their members, and the rights of individuals to assert the interests of third parties. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and who are seeking to further refine their knowledge and grasp of the area.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM20

Article III of the United States Constitution requires a plaintiff to establish "standing" in order to sue in federal court. In addition to showing an injury-in fact, plaintiff must also show "causation" and "redressability." In other words, plaintiff must show that defendant is the "cause" of the injury, and that the injury will be redressable by a favorable judicial decision. In this lesson, we examine the requirement of causation (and, to a lesser extent, the requirement of redressability) in an attempt to determine what its means and how it is applied in particular cases. The lesson is intended for students who have studied this topic in class, and who wish to refine their knowledge of the topic.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM26

This lesson covers the basic Constitutional doctrine of state action. This lesson can be used to prepare for class or as a review of Constitutional doctrine. This lesson consists of 25 scored questions and 2 unscored questions, divided into three substantive parts. The first part, State Action Basics and History, considers the basic principles and history of state action doctrine. The second part, United States Supreme Court State Action Cases, treats major cases generally covered in Constitutional Law courses, casebooks, and study materials. The third section, A State Action Hypothetical, examines a recent case decided by a circuit court.

45 minutes
CST03

This lesson is designed to cover how to distinguish legally relevant facts, contextually relevant facts, and nonrelevant facts; plus, how to use each of those types of facts. It is also designed to cover beginning and organizing a statement of facts, writing facts briefly and readably, stating facts objectively, and stating facts persuasively.

60 minutes
LWR27

The Statute of Frauds is a defense to certain oral contracts. In this lesson, the student is guided to always ask three questions: 1) Is the agreement within the Statute of Frauds? 2) Is the agreement evidenced by a writing? 3) Is there an exception to the Statute? Experience with this framework should help in resolving any Statute of Frauds issue. A sample exam question is also included.

1.5 hours
CON11

This lesson assumes you are familiar with the requirement of consideration. It also assumes you are familiar with the rule that past consideration is not good consideration. As you may recall, "past consideration" is a misnomer. If a party makes a promise to pay for a benefit previously conferred, there is no consideration for the promise because the benefit was not bargained for in exchange for the promise. The topic of this lesson is one of the exceptions to this general rule—statutes (whether derived from the common law or, for example, the Uniform Commercial Code) that dispense with consideration.

25 minutes
CON24

This lesson introduces the student to the doctrine and processes involved in interpreting state and federal statutes. Statutes are a critical part of every substantive area of the law, so this is important background for every law student, lawyer and judge.

30 minutes
LCS03

Strict liability for animals is one of the oldest forms of strict liability in tort law. The topic concerns the problems that arise with both trespassing animals and attacking animals. This lesson discusses and illustrates the rules that apply to that area.

35 minutes
TRT37

This podcast discusses material that is also covered in Prof. Eades' two CALI lessons Strict Liability and Animals and Strict Liability: Abnormally Dangerous and Ultrahazardous Activities

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7:19 minutes
TRT36P

Strict liability for dangerous activities began with the English case of Rylands v. Fletcher. The First Restatement and the Second Restatement both contained provisions for a similar form of such strict liability and such liability is widely recognized in the United States. This lesson explains and uses examples to explain and then compare and contrast those different theories. In addition, this lesson covers the basic limitations on that form of strict liability.

50 minutes
TRT36

This lesson has been revised to reflect the December 1, 2006 amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, as they were re-written effective December 1, 2007.

The student is asked to decide summary judgment motions on a claim for defamation and a counterclaim for battery. After requiring the student to explore and apply the fundamental concepts of summary judgment, such as what constitutes a genuine issue, the exercise moves into more difficult problems based on court interpretations of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 56.

1 hour
CIV13

This lesson covers the basics of both spousal and child support jurisdiction. It is intended as an introduction to the materials and it can also be used for review.

1 hour
FAM02

This lesson provides an overview of the history and structure of the European Union, followed by an introduction to researching European Union documents. The European Union is a truly unique structure which represents over half a century of cooperation between select nations. As the sole supranational legal order in the world, the European Union offers a truly unique model of study to legal scholars and practitioners.

1 hour
LR89

Match Justice names and decisions.

5 minutes
GAME02

This exercise is designed as a review for students taking the basic first year course in criminal law. Suspendatur! (Latin for “let him be hanged”, the final entry in medieval plea rolls in capital cases) is patterned after the familiar game of hangman, in which each wrong answer adds a part to a stick figure on the gibbet. The student must answer multiple choice and true-false questions based on hypothetical situations. Each right or wrong answer provides substantive feedback in what aims to be at least a mildly humorous fashion.

2 hours
CRIM03

This lesson is the third of several addressing the various relationships resulting in the concurrent ownership of property. It is designed to introduce Property students to this tenancy form. The lesson progresses from addressing the traditional elements required to create a tenancy by the entirety, the resulting right of survivorship, and the events severing the tenancy. Also, it deals with the status of the tenancy by the entirety under modern statutes.

1.5 hours
PPL24

This lesson is the second of several addressing the various relationships resulting in the concurrent ownership of property. It is designed to introduce Property students to this tenancy form. The interactive tutorial progresses from addressing the traditional requirements to create a tenancy in common, the lack of right of survivorship, and the status of the tenancy in common under modern statutes.

45 minutes
PPL12

This CALI lesson will introduce you to Tennessee primary sources. As an overview of these materials this lesson will not describe any one resource in great depth. CALI lessons describing statutes, cases, digests, etc. are a great resource for learning more about individual authorities. This lesson is intended primarily for first year law students.

30-45 minutes
LR126

This lesson is intended to familiarize the reader with Tennessee legal research materials and will focus on Tennessee secondary authorities. You will learn about finding aids for researching secondary authorities and explore both hard cover and online tools to access secondary source materials.

30 - 45 minutes
LR124

This lesson explores the myriad ways in which easements may be terminated. It begins by focusing on express termination, the most effective way to terminate an easement when the holder of the benefit of the easement agrees to terminate it. The bulk of the interactive tutorial deals with the more complicated problem of termination without the express consent of the benefitted party.

30 minutes
PPL50

This lesson is intended to familiarize the reader with Texas legal research and will focus on Texas' primary legal sources: constitution, statutes, legislative history, local legislation, court cases and administrative law. The major finding tools and their various types of updating methods are also explained.

1 hour
LR112

This lesson deals with third party beneficiary contracts. The initial questions in this exercise are intended to familiarize students with the various types of contract beneficiaries. Since there is no general agreement on terminology, the questions test the students on both the First Restatement of Contracts types, i.e., creditor, donee, and incidental, and the Second Restatement of Contract types, i.e., intended and incidental. Subsequent questions deal with vesting of contract beneficiaries' rights and with defenses which can be asserted by a promisor against a beneficiary.

1.5 hours
CON05

Prof. Burnham, author of a number of CALI lessons and podcasts provides students with advice on multiple choice exam questions. Prof. Burnham goes into the different aspects of a multiple choice question: the stimulus, options, key, and distracters. Additionally, Prof. Burnham discusses the different types of multiple choice questions such as questions that test a student’s ability to recall information, those that draw on materials discussed in class, and those that require analysis. Students are taught how to respond to the call of a question, apply IRAC to multiple choice questions, as well as different tactics for eliminating options in a question. At the end of this lesson students will know how to decipher what type of question is being asked, how to spot the specific issue in the question, and how to eliminate the other choices.


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11:14 minutes
LCS07P

In this podcast, Prof. Jennifer Martin discusses the top ten mistakes law students make in law school examinations. These are poor issue spotting, poor issue spotting, poor knowledge and understanding of the law, poor application of the law to the facts, giving only conclusory answers, lack of organization, errors in the facts, failure to understand the role you are given in the examination, padding, fact inventing, and question begging. Included in this discussion is guidance on spotting the issues, avoiding being bottom line oriented, how to use the facts, how to approach a question, and using words efficiently. Prof. Martin also discusses the hallmarks of a good essay answer. These answers are lawyerlike, responsive to the question asked, logical, thought out, well organized, fact and issue centered, and use cogent reasoning and good rule application.

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11:20 minutes
LCS06P

This lesson is an exploration of the law of torts enabling a person to obtain compensation for wrongful interference with personal property. The exploration uses the concepts of interests, invasion, conduct and remedy as the vehicles for developing understanding of the cause of action and its operation. Each section of the lesson will focus on one of these components, present the theory, and then give the student an opportunity to apply the theory or explore some of its ramifications. The lesson is designed to be comprehensive enough to be assigned without supporting textual assignments or classroom attention to the subject. Although this lesson and the companion lesson on conversion are free-standing, the student may find that completing this lesson first will produce best results.

1 hour and 45 minutes
TRT47

This lesson is a general introduction to resources for researching Tribunals and Truth Commissions.  The lesson will focus on online and print sources relating to tribunals and truth commissions with a specific focus on the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR).

The lesson is divided into four parts:

  • Introduction to Tribunals
  • ICTY
  • ICTR
  • Truth Commissions

The sources highlighted in this lesson is a selective list from the many sources available on this topic. For additional assistance in locating sources at Columbia's Diamond Law Library, please do not hesitate to contact the reference librarians at the Reference Desk.

45 minutes
LR83

This lesson will provide an understanding of the language, mechanics and process of conducting research of U.S. treaties: the major sources of treaty texts (both official and unofficial), major indexes and finding tools, major secondary resources to aid in research, sources of reservations and declarations, and finally, resources for updating treaties.

40 minutes
LR55

This lesson demonstrates how the principles of remedies are found in the UCC and provides some guidance for working with the UCC. This lesson may be run either as an introduction before the material is studied or as a review after it is studied.

30 minutes
CON49

This lesson explores the remedies that are available in UCC Article 2 for the Buyer when the Seller is in breach. We first examine the remedies when the Seller has the goods, and then when the Buyer has the goods. This lesson may be run either as an introduction before the material is studied or as a review after it is studied.

1 hour
CON50

This lesson explores the remedies that are available in UCC Article 2 for the Seller when the Buyer is in breach. We first examine the remedies when the Buyer has the goods, and then when the Seller has the goods. This lesson may be run either as an introduction before the material is studied or as a review after it is studied.

1 hour
CON48

This lesson addresses the enforcement provisions of the child custody jurisdiction statutes. It also addresses the international aspects of child custody enforcement. The lesson should be worked after completing the lesson on Child Custody Jurisdiction.

The lesson assumes that the student is familiar with the provisions of the UCCJA, the PKPA, and the UCCJEA, but does not assume knowledge of the enforcement provisions of these statutes. The lesson does not assume that the student has a great deal of exposure to the international aspects of this issue, other than perhaps a brief overview of the Hague Convention and the International Parental Kidnapping Act.

45 minutes
FAM25

This lesson will show you the basic tools for finding United Nations materials. It first gives an overview of how the United Nations is organized. It includes descriptions of each of the principal organs of the U.N. and an overview of the United Nations document numbering system. It then shows several online tools for United Nations research: the U.N.'s web site; the U.N. Documentation Centre; Official Document System; AccessUN; and UNBISNet. It ends with an introduction to a few web sites for very current information about the United Nations.

45 minutes
LR65

A court has the power to police contracts, to determine whether they contain "unconscionable" provisions. This lesson explores the criteria courts use in exercising that power, focusing on the case of Williams v. Walker-Thomas Furniture Co.

1 hour
CON17

The subject of "unlawful delegation" of powers is an important issue in both constitutional and administrative law. Not infrequently, Congress attempts to delegate its legislative authority to an administrative agency or to the courts. Sometimes, Congress attempts to delegate judicial power to administrative agencies. In this lesson, we explore the legality of such delegations. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and wish to refine their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM16

This lesson will take you through the process of updating statutes. It builds on concepts developed in the lesson, Introduction to State and Federal Statutes, and the Codification lesson. This lesson assumes a basic understanding of statutes including how they are created and codified.

1 hour
LWR24

This lesson explains how to make sure your case is still "good law." Focusing on print and on-line citators, specifically Shepard's, LexisNexis Shepard's on-line, and Westlaw KeyCite, it builds on concepts introduced in various CALI lessons including: " Legal Research 101: The Tools of the Trade"; "Legal Research Methodology"; "How to Find Case Law Using Digests"; and "Hold'em, Fold'em, Walk Away or Run: When to Stop the Search." This lesson assumes a basic understanding of case law including the specific parts of a reported court decision. This lesson may be used as an introduction to the subject, and also as a review at the end of a legal research course, or before moving to more advanced legal research projects or courses. The lesson provides an option to move directly from the introductory material to on-line citators, skipping citators in print.

45 minutes
LWR36

This lesson will teach you how to use the three major legal citators - Shepard's in print, Shepard's on Lexis, and KeyCite on Westlaw - to locate additional useful cases when starting with one case or other document, and to find secondary resources such as law reviews when starting with a case or other document.

90 minutes
LR104

This lesson is intended as an introduction to the use of the Restatements of the Law. In this lesson students will learn what the Restatements of the Law are and why one would use them for legal research, their major features, how to search them, and how to use them to find cases.

20 minutes
LWR38

This CALI lesson provides instruction on conducting Utah legal research using both primary and secondary sources.

1 hour 15 minutes
LR87

This lesson is an introduction to researching Virginia law using primary source materials, such as the Code of Virginia, Virginia state caselaw, and the Virginia Administrative Code.

1 hour
LR129

As you work through the various defenses to contract formation, you will find that sometimes the defense makes the contract void, sometimes voidable, and sometimes unenforceable. This lesson provides an examination of that vocabulary to assist the user when running the lessons that follow.

20 minutes
CON13

This lesson has been revised to reflect the December 1, 2006 amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, as they were re-written effective December 1, 2007.

Rule 12 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure provides that certain defenses, including lack of jurisdiction, improper venue, and failure to state a claim, can at the pleader’s option be brought by motion prior to filing a responsive pleading. It also provides that certain of these defenses are waived if they are not asserted in the proper fashion. This exercise deals with the reasons for special treatment of those defenses and analysis of the waiver provisions of the rule. It provides practice in close scrutiny and interpretation of a complex set of interrelated provisions.

1 hour
CIV09

A contract can contain many different types of express and implied terms. Express and implied warranty terms are the subject of this lesson. When parties contract for the sale of goods, they have certain expectations about the goods to be sold. These expectations form the basis of warranties. That is, what has the seller agreed to sell?

40 minutes
CON28

This CALI lesson is designed to introduce students to Washington's primary law: cases, statutes and regulations. Although the lesson can be used as a standalone tool, it can also be used to supplement other forms of instruction such as classroom lectures or demonstrations. The questions provide students with ongoing feedback as they learn.

50 minutes
LR71

This lesson covers secondary source research for the State of Washington.

30 minutes
LR117

This lesson provides a review of the doctrine of prior appropriation, the water law system that dominates in the western part of the United States. It is intended for students that have already studied prior appropriation as part of a Water Law, Natural Resources, or Advanced Property course.

Students may want to complete the CALI lesson entitled "Water Law Basics: Overview of Surface Water Law in the United States" before starting this lesson.

This lesson consists of 15 questions.

30-45 minutes
ENV24

Who has the right to pump and use ground water -- the water in underground aquifers? The various states in the United States have used a variety of rules to establish rights in ground water. As a practical matter, some of these rules have created problems because states didn't recognize that ground waters and surface waters are often connected.

This lesson provides a review of the five major doctrines that states have employed to decide who has what rights in ground water. It is intended to serve as a review of these doctrines for students who have studied ground water rights as part of a Water Law, Property, or Advanced Property course. The lesson consists of 15 questions.

30-45 minutes
ENV26

Water law is dominated by state law. However, one important federal law exception to this general principle are federal reserved rights -- water rights retained by the federal government when it sets aside federal land for particular purposes, such as an Indian reservation or national park.

This lesson provides a review of federal reserved rights for students who have covered that doctrine in a Water Law, Natural Resources Law, or Advanced Property course. Students should already be familiar with federal reserved rights in general and the Winters doctrine in particular. The lesson emphasizes the Winters doctrine and federal reserved rights for tribal reservations, but it also covers the other kinds of federal reserved rights.

45 minutes
ENV28

While most of the states in the country choose between the water law doctrines of prior appropriation and riparian rights, California applies both. This approach to state water law is called, appropriately, the California system.

This lesson gives a brief overview of the California system of water rights. California was the first state to attempt to blend prior appropriation and riparian rights. However, its example can be considered instructive for the modern evolution of water law, because more and more states are trying to blend the best parts of both systems.

45 minutes
ENV30

This is an overview of the branches of the U.S. government and how they make law.

30 minutes
LCS04

This lesson will introduce you to primary legal materials in Wisconsin. You will learn how to locate Wisconsin constitutional provisions, state statutes, case opinions, and regulations using both print and electronic resources.

45 minutes
LR130

This lesson is available only in a non-standard lesson format. As CALI updates the format of this lesson, we will continue to make this lesson available to you and your students in its current form because we believe it still has educational value. While this lesson still, essentially, runs as intended, there are potential technical problems: 

  1. there is no way to print the score certificate standard in most CALI lessons; 
  2. there is no ScoreSave feature and, thus, it is incompatible with LessonLink; and 
  3. the built-in save feature has been disabled. It was unreliable and did not work as the lesson lead students to believe.

Because of these printing and saving complications, if you assign or suggest this lesson, we highly recommend you not require any sort of proof of completion from your students.

Effective December 1, 2006, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure were amended to reflect changes in discovery resulting from the electronic storage of information. CALI's lessons do not yet reflect these amendments. As each lesson is revised to reflect the amended rules, the lesson's catalog description will be updated to enable students and faculty to easily tell which lessons include the amended rules.

This game is designed to introduce students to the fundamentals of the discovery process. It is based on the acclaimed book "A Civil Action," by Jonathan Harr, and draws its problems from the litigation arising out of the contamination of the Aberjona aquifer in Woburn, Massachusetts.

Woburn provides students with a unique opportunity to acquaint themselves with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure regarding discovery in the context of a concrete, real-life case. Assuming the roles of plaintiffs' and defendants' attorneys, the players alternate making decisions about when and how to disclose or request discovery of certain pieces of information, as well as when to cooperate with and when to oppose their opponent's discovery efforts. The simulation is highly interactive, with the computer taking the role of Judge Skinner, who occasionally intervenes to rule on discovery motions.

The thirteen problem sets included with Woburn cover a wide variety of topics, including:

  • Mandatory initial and supplemental disclosure requirements;
  • Proper use of various methods of discovery (subpoenas, interrogatories, depositions, requests for document production, medical examinations, requests for admission);
  • Expert witness reports;
  • Work product and privilege defenses;
  • Cost-shifting for discovery activities;
  • Attorney's fees awards; and
  • Sanctions for conduct in violation of the rules.

Woburn will teach students the details of the rules. It will also illuminate the strategic dimensions of discovery. While pursuing their discovery efforts within the context of the rules, the players are forced to think strategically about the costs of various discovery activities, time constraints, and their reputation with the judge, jury, and the legal community at large. Frivolous motions are punished by a loss of reputation; time-consuming document requests may exhaust a player's financial resources. The need to juggle these non-legal factors brings the rules to life, showing the student how particular rules affect attorneys' decision-making processes in concrete situations.

The game is to be played out of class, on the student's own schedule. At the end the students will have internalized the structure and dynamics of the discovery rules, and be ready to discuss the more conceptual or policy-oriented issues in class.

This new, internet-based interface makes Woburn easily accessible and easy to play. On-screen reports let the players know at all times how their discovery efforts are progressing, and pictures of the actual persons involved in the trial as well as of the contamination site, court documents, and so forth, further heighten the impact of the game.

1.5 hours
CIV20

Note: This lesson uses Flash and is unable to be viewed on a device that does not have the Flash player installed. Scoring for this lesson is also unavailable at this time.

This program is designed to be useful to students interested in improving their exam-writing techniques. In much of the written work done by lawyers (including writing exams as students), a special form of writing is used. The program begins with an explicit discussion of that form, and the structural implications it has. Within that specific context, the program goes on to discuss the tasks to be performed, the tools used in performing those tasks, and methods of sharpening those tools. The program concludes with some interactive opportunities to try the techniques described.

1.5 hours
EXAM01

This lesson looks at the process of negotiations discussing the terms of a contract when the parties contemplate a final written agreement. Often the intention is to put the terms into a final definitive writing and for the contract not to arise until signed. Other times, parties may actually agree to the terms of a contract with the obligation to execute a final contract in writing containing all the terms agreed upon. When they make such an agreement, this agreement itself may conclude the contract even prior to the signing of the final documents. This lesson illustrates both of these situations and concludes with a sample analysis problem looking at the existence of a contract after oral negotiations.

30 minutes
CON46

This CALI lesson provides a general review of legal research and an introduction to Wyoming primary and secondary resources.

1 hour
LR73

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