Lessons: 2L-3L Upper Level Lesson Topics

This lesson is designed to teach you the terms, i.e., the words of art, you will need to understand if you are studying Article 3 of the UCC which governs negotiable instruments. It may be used as an introduction to these concepts or as a review or reinforcement of them.

40 minutes when used for review or reinforcement; an hour when used as an introduction
NP12

This lesson deals with how trademark protection may be lost by abandonment, i.e. the discontinued use of a mark, the licensing of a mark in gross or an assignment of a mark in gross. This lesson is intended to be used as a supplement to the student's course material. It analyzes several issues that arise from the non-use or limited use of a mark, the licensing or assignment of a mark, as well as the considerations that follow the resumption of use of an abandoned mark.

30-45 minutes
TM10

This lesson can be used in a Family Law or Constitutional Law course, as preparation for class or as review for an exam on the topic of Abortion.

45 minutes
FAM26

This lesson discusses how to account for contingencies, uncertain future gains and losses. A basic understanding of financial statements and the essential ideas underlying accrual accounting is helpful before undertaking this lesson.

25 minutes
ACCT10

This lesson builds on the concepts that you may have been introduced to in Professor Robert Lind's lesson on the classification of marks, e.g., generic marks, descriptive marks, suggestive marks, arbitrary marks, and fanciful marks. Specifically, this lesson will concentrate on the validity of a mark for trademark protection purposes when the trademark or trade dress is not inherently distinctive. So, after completing this lesson, you should be able to identify and then analyze when a trademark or trade dress may receive trademark protection even though the mark or dress is not inherently distinctive. For your information, in most respects trademarks and trade dress are treated similarly, if not the same, by the Lanham Act. In only a few evidentiary situations will trademarks and trade dress be distinguished; for example, when determining whether a source identifier is inherently distinctive or not. This principle will be explained fully in the Trade Dress lesson.

40 minutes
TM19

This lesson examines the scope of one of the exclusive rights belonging to a copyright owner -- the right to create derivative works based on the copyrighted work, under 17 U.S.C. § 106(2).

20 minutes plus 10-minute essay
CPY19

The purpose of this lesson is to examine how administrative agencies create "rules," particularly in adjudicative contexts. The goal is to contrast so-called "legislative procedures" with "adjudicative procedures," and then to examine the scope and limits of adjudicative authority. The lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and wish to refine their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM09

The concept of "present value" is derived from the fact that any given sum of money has the capacity (if properly invested) to earn additional money over time. Indeed, it is this inherent earning power of money that gives rise to the requirement in most jurisdictions that "present value" adjustments must be made in every situation where damages representing future pecuniary losses are awarded. Part I of this Lessonette® tutorial is designed to explain why certain types of damage awards must be adjusted to their "present value," and to demonstrate precisely how those adjustments are actually calculated. The Lessonette also examines a variety of individual factors that should be taken into consideration in performing various types of "present value" adjustments. This Lessonette tutorial is intended for those students who already have a good working knowledge of the concept of pecuniary damages, including the various individual components of such damages, as well as how they are measured.

Part II of this Lessonette exercise addresses the related concept of adjusting future pecuniary damage awards to account for the potential effects of future economic inflation. This portion of the Lessonette examines in detail three specific methodologies for making such adjustments that were expressly articulated by the U.S. Supreme Court in its decision in Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp. v. Pfeifer, 462 U.S. 523, 76 L. Ed. 2d 768, 103 S. Ct. 2541 (1983).

This Lessonette is considerably longer than most CALI lessons, as it really contains two distinct portions, either of which can be completed separately, or at different sittings. However, the Lessonette as a whole is designed to be completed in its entirety, since adjustments to any future pecuniary damage award generally must take into account both the concept of "present value" as well as that of future inflation.

Students who are unfamiliar with any of the basic underlying damages concepts that are addressed in this Lessonette should consult subject-specific CALI lessons on damages before proceeding with this Lessonette. Finally, it should also be noted that although this Lessonette does address a number of specific mathematical formulas by which present value and related future inflation adjustments are made, students need not possess any high level of mathematical or computational skills beyond the most basic math proficiency to successfully complete this Lessonette.

1 hour 15 minutes
REM21

This lesson deals with the topic of administrative inspections. Governmental officials conduct inspections in a variety of contexts. Some of these inspections are conducted by the police. Others are conducted by special administrative officials charged only with the task of carrying out certain administrative tasks. As we shall see, the United States Supreme Court has developed special rules governing such inspections. In this lesson, we examine those special rules in depth. This lesson is designed for students who have studied these issues in class and who wish to further refine their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM19

Many administrative agencies have their own judicial structures (often referred to as "quasi-judicial" structures). In this lesson, we examine the development of one type of judge used in those structures, the so-called administrative law judge. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and who wish to further refine and develop their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM24

This lesson explores the countless "administrative" searches governed by the Fourth Amendment that occur every day without warrants or probable cause, in public schools, jails and prisons, factories and offices, and at vehicle checkpoints and border crossings. It examines the US Supreme Court's "balancing methodology" applied to these non-traditional "special needs" searches in the context of drug testing, searches in prisons and jails, vehicle inspections and checkpoints, and border searches. The lesson has separate units for each of these subjects and concludes with an essay question.

90 minutes
CRMPRO20

This lesson will cover the general area of adoption law and is designed as an introduction for those students who have not studied the subject and as a review for those students who have.

45 minutes
FAM09

This Aviation lesson explores the liability of air traffic controllers when damage is caused under the direction of these federal employees.

45 minutes
AVA06

This lesson includes a discussion of the qualifications of aircraft mechanics and inspectors; and accidents and harm caused by a failure to adequately maintain aircraft.

30 minutes
AVA08

This lesson examines the Federal Aviation Regulations Part 67: Medical Standards and Certification (14 C.F.R. § 67 et. seq. ). Additionally, it explores the options for airmen when medical certification is denied, suspended, or revoked. The reasons for these abjurations and the appeal process are also explained. Finally, a series of cases is presented to help illustrate the enforcement action.

45-60 minutes
AVA14

Airport categories can be split into two types, public-use and private use. At the same time airport ownership is broken into two categories as well, private ownership and public ownership. However, airport categories and ownership do not line up along the same lines - there exist privately owned, public use airports. This lesson seeks to distinguish between public and private ownership of airports as well as their powers available to each.

Please note that the opinions and views expressed in this lesson are solely those of the author.

30-40 minutes
AVA07

This lesson reviews the general law of alimony. It focuses on the differences between alimony and property distribution; the gender implications, justifications, eligibility, amount and duration of alimony; the forms of alimony; and alimony modification. This lesson does not discuss compensatory spousal payments under the American Law Institute's Principles of the Law of Family Dissolution, which are addressed in a separate CALI lesson.

45 minutes
FAM11

When a preliminary or temporary injunction has been entered against a defendant, and the defendant believes that injunction is wrongfully issued, he has three choices in resisting the injunction: disobey and risk contempt; move to modify or terminate; or appeal.
This lesson explores that third option. Students may use this lesson for a basic tutorial on the subject by clicking on the links for research, which provide background instruction, or if students have studied this material elsewhere, they may test their knowledge by simply answering the questions provided without getting any hints. The lesson will focus primarily on the rules as they apply in the federal courts. While many (if not most) states have a similar approach to the federal system, students are advised to carefully research their own state's law regarding appeal of injunctions.

30 to 90 minutes depending on the student's level of background preparation
REM42

This lesson explores the protection of architectural works (building designs) both under the 1976 Copyright Act and after adoption of the Architectural Works Copyright Protection Act of 1990. It assumes familiarity with the rules applicable to useful articles, the idea-expression dichotomy, and basic copyright infringement analysis, including its application to selection and arrangement compilations. It can be used either as a stand-alone treatment or to supplement in-class discussion when constrained by time.

45 minutes plus essay (20 minutes)
CPY18

This lesson examines the definition of a partnership. It highlights the definition of a partnership and how it differs from the sole proprietorship (the only other business organization that exists without first satisfying formal filing requirements).

It details the characteristics (factors) examined when answering the factual question: Is this a partnership or something else?

The answer to this question is important because different answers may give rise to different legal consequences. If there is a partnership, the parties are partners with the resulting rights and obligations. If there is no partnership, the parties have a different relationship--perhaps employer/employee (principal/agent) or debtor/creditor--with different rights and obligations.

1 hour
BA08

This lesson explores the constitutional limitations on agency adjudicative authority stemming from Article III's commitment of the judicial power to Article III courts.

50 minutes
ADM35

This lesson integrates agency law and partnership law to develop an understanding of the authority partners possess to bind the partnership. The lesson explores the actual and apparent authority of partners and the possibility of inherent agency power in the partner context.

45 minutes
BA07

This lesson discusses the power that an agent (or apparent agent) has to affect the legal rights of the principal. In general, an agent or apparent agent may affect the principal's legal rights only to the extent that the agent possesses the authority or the power to do so. This lesson provides an introduction to the three basic types of authority -- actual authority, apparent authority, and inherent agency power.

45 minutes
BA01

The lesson will review the three most significant automobile search standards: the automobile exception, searches of automobiles incident to arrest, and inventory searches of automobiles.

40 minutes
CRMPRO08

This lesson introduces students to the law governing circumstances in which judicial review of actions, and inaction, of federal administrative agencies is available and when it may be restricted or unavailable. The lesson explores questions of jurisdiction, and rights of review principally under the Administrative Procedure Act.

1.25. hours (1.75 with essay)
ADM34

This lesson discusses the statutory basis for aviation accident investigations. The discussion centers around case studies of two aviation accident investigations. A comparison is drawn between federal statutes and regulations enabling aviation accident investigations and civil actions of the same cases. Specifically, why does the federal government investigate aviation accidents rather than states? What statutes guide accident investigations? What is the objective of accident investigations? What is the relationship, if any, of civil litigation and accident investigations?

The lesson contains a number of questions and exercises to help the student synthesize the content presented. The lesson was produced during the inaugural class of The Legal Environment of Aviation taught by Professor John Sabel, J.D., at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.

The lesson is an independent effort of the author and does not represent an official opinion of the National Transportation Safety Board.

SUGGESTED USES OF THIS LESSON Faculty can use this lesson to point out how administrative agencies function. The lesson also provides a background to legal details related to aviation and terminology thereof.

1 hour
AVA01

In the United States, federal laws extensively regulate aircraft, airlines, pilots, and airports. People and companies involved in aviation need to be familiar with these federal laws, as well as state and international regulations that affect aircraft and airlines. The Federal Aviation Administration, the National Transportation Safety Administration, and the Department of Transportation, as well as state laws and international treaties, all play a role in regulating aviation.

45-60 minutes
AVA12

This lesson reviews some of the concepts needed to understand the patent law doctrine of "nonobviousness" (Section 103 of the Patent Act). Before completing this lesson students should be familiar with the doctrine of novelty under Section 102 of the Act.

45 minutes
PAT04

This lesson introduces students to the Federal APA with special emphasis on (1) mapping the relationship of its parts and (2) closely examining the text of the principal sections.

1 hour
ADM06

This lesson reviews the standards for discipline and the interpretive case law by examining a series of cases in which considering whether the conduct alleged falls under the definition of misconduct (using Model Rule 8.4). Some procedural and constitutional aspects of discipline are examined as well. The lesson can be used as preparation, review or substitution for class coverage of this topic.

1 hour
PR11

This lesson deals with the problem created by the Battle of the Forms. At common law, the mirror image rule requires an acceptance to be exactly like the offer. The rule is reversed under the Uniform Commercial Code, however. Under UCC § 2-207, an acceptance is still an acceptance even though it states different or additional terms from the offer. This lesson will explore the effect of such different or additional terms and when they are operative. This lesson can be worked as an introduction to the Battle of the Forms or as a review. This lesson may be a more in-depth study of UCC § 2-207 than many first year contracts courses require. However, prior to working this lesson, you should have an understanding of offer, acceptance and mutual assent.

1.5 - 2.0 hours
CON64

This exercise is designed to guide the student through the basics of the best evidence/original document rule under the federal rules. The exercise progresses logically through the rule. In order, it looks at the definition of “writing, recording, or photograph,” the concept of proving “content of a writing,” the definition of “original” and “duplicate,” proof of “collateral” matters, material in possession of the opposite party, computer printouts, compilations, secondary evidence (Is there a “second best evidence” rule?), and the division of function between the judge and jury.

The exercise does not touch on Public Records (FRE 1005) or on Testimony or Written Admission of Party (FRE 1007). These are left for students to read on their own.

30 minutes
EVD09

This exercise is designed to introduce the student to the "bottom line" defense rejected by the Supreme Court in Connecticut v. Teal. The exercise explores the circumstances of disparate impact claims and affirmative action programs under which the "bottom line" defense usually arises and the arguments involved. The use of "bottom line" evidence, sometimes used in disparate treatment litigation, is also explained and distinguished. Some understanding of basic discrimination theory (disparate treatment and disparate impact) is helpful in understanding the lesson.

5 hours
EMPD01

This lesson introduces the federal and state securities laws regulating business finance. The lesson is designed for students taking Business Associations or Corporations, so the coverage is fairly basic; this lesson is not intended to be used by Securities Regulation students.

The lesson is modular. The core of the lesson focuses on federal securities law restrictions on the public offering of securities—the federal registration and prospectus delivery requirements and the accompanying restrictions on communications and sales activities. In addition to this core material, the lesson contains additional, optional sections dealing with the definition of "security," exemptions from the federal requirements, the anti-fraud provisions of federal securities law, and state securities law.

These additional modules are designed so they may be assigned or completed as needed. They are independent of all but the core material in the lesson.

1 hour 20 minutes
CORP15

This lesson is intended to familiarize students with the Business Judgment Rule, an essential component of corporate governance.

1 hour
CORP08

This lesson is the first of two designed to familiarize you with aspects of shareholders' derivative litigation and the role played by the business judgment rule. This lesson focuses on demand upon the board of directors. In most states, shareholders are required to make demand upon the board of directors before they can proceed with a derivative suit. The board's response to that demand is reviewed under the business judgment rule. This lesson will take you through the operation of the rule at this critical stage in derivative litigation.

40 minutes
CORP17

This is the second of two lessons that examine aspects of shareholders' derivative litigation and the role played in such litigation by the business judgment rule. This lesson focuses on the Special Litigation Committee. It is recommended that you complete the first lesson (The Business Judgment Rule in Shareholder Derivative Litigation I: Demand Upon the Board) before beginning this one. The author also assumes you have completed or are currently enrolled in a basic Business Associations or Corporations course, and are therefore familiar with the fundamentals of corporate governance, the basic structure of shareholders' derivative litigation and the working of the business judgment rule. If you are unfamiliar with the business judgment rule, you should complete CALI lesson Business Judgment Rule before proceeding further with this one.

40 minutes
CORP14

This exercise introduces users to the principal provisions of the California Probate Code which governs intestacy. It also illustrates the application of those provisions to typical fact situations. The exercise explores inheritance by descendants, ancestors and collateral heirs in the context of both separate, community and quasicommunity property. Finally, the program explores subsidiary problems of inheritance such as the rights of posthumous heirs, adopted heirs, illegitimate children, foster-children, the slayer of the decedent and the treatment of the simultaneous death problem.

1.5 hours
WT02

CANINE (The Complete Article Nine) is a unique set of learning materials designed to assist both law students and lawyers to be effective Article 9 practitioners. It consists of a comprehensive collection of text and interactive problems modeled after a conventional casebook or treatise.

Download the text and problems: DOWNLOAD.

Download a printable PDF of the book chapters (excludes the problems): PDF.

The text is designed to be used with a commercially available set of commercial law statutes. The online version has the same content as found in the hardcopy, but in addition it provides hyperlinks that allow users to pull up statutory and secondary references and a keyword search capability.

The interactive problem sets found at the end of each chapter are likely to be the most valuable section for students, and may be done as stand-alone exercises. In the online version they provide the immediate feedback that is so important for effective learning. The tailoring of feedback to fit a user's level of expertise and understanding allows a user to proceed at his or her own pace and to reexamine questions and feedback as the user may wish.

CT11

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 3 (The Nature of Secured Credit under Article 9), but also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_03

These interactive problems are to be used with CANINE Chapter 4 (Scope of Article 9), but they may be used alone also.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_04

These interactive problems are to be used with Chapter 5 (Classification of Collateral), but also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_05

These interactive problems are intended for use with CANINE Chapter 6 (Choice of Law), but also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_06

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 7 (Creating an Enforceable Article 9 Security Interest), but also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_07

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 8 (The Specifics of Enforceability -- A Security Agreement Authenticated by the Debtor or Its Legal Equivalent), but also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_08

These interactive problems are to be used with CANINE Chapter 9 (Specifics of Enforceability -- After-acquired Collateral, Future Advances, Transferred Collateral and Proceeds, and the New Debtor Problem), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_09

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 10 (The Need for Value and Debtor's Rights in the Collateral), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_10

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 11 (Enforceability in Consumer Transactions), but they may also be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_11

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 12 (Perfection Generally), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_12

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 13 (Overview of Perfection by Filing), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_13

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 14 (The Nitty Gritty of Filing), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_14

These interactive problems are intended for use with CANINE Chapter 15 (Perfection by Possession), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_15

These interactive problems are intended for use with CANINE Chapter 16 (Perfecting Security Interests in Proceeds and Other Later-Acquired Property), but also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_16

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 17 (Perfection as to Goods Subject to Certificate of Title Legislation), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_17

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 18 (Perfection by Doing Nothing -- Automatic Perfection), but also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_18

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 19 (Perfection Pursuant To Federal Law), but also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_19

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 20 (Perfecting Security Interests in Fixtures and Other Real Estate Related Collateral), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_20

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 21 (Perfection As To Investment Property), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_21

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 22 (Perfection as to Deposit Accounts, Letter of Credit Rights and Electronic Chattel Paper), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_22

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 23 (Continuing Perfection -- The Need to Reperfect (or Refile), but also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_23

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 24 (Continuous Perfection -- Changes as to the Use of the Collateral or the Location of the Collateral or the Debtor; Security Interests in Proceeds), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_24

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 25 (The How and Why of Priority), but also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_25

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 26 (Secured Party Versus Lien Creditor and Trustee in Bankruptcy), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_26

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 27 (Secured Party Versus Buyer), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_27

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 28 (Secured Party Versus Secured Party), but also may be used alone. Chapter 29 continues the treatment of priority disputes between and among secured parties.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_28

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 29 (Secured Party Versus Secured Party Continued), but they also may be used alone. Problem Set 28 also deals with disputes between and among secured parties.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_29

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 30 (Secured Party Versus Trustee in Bankruptcy), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_30

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 31 (Secured Party Versus Statutory Liens Including Federal Tax Liens), but also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_31

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 32 (Fixtures Priorities), but also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_32

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 33 (Secured Party's Options on Default), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_33

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 34 (Getting Possession of the Collateral), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_34

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 35 (Disposition of Collateral), but may also be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_35

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 36 (Acceptance in Full or Partial Satisfaction of the Debt), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_36

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 37 (Foreclosure as to Intangibles), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_37

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 38 (Remedies for a Secured Party's Failure to Comply with Article 9), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_38

These interactive problems are intended to be used with CANINE Chapter 39 (Enforcing Security Interests in Bankruptcy), but they also may be used alone.

To see the entire textbook - CANINE: Complete Article Nine, click here.

15 minutes
CT11_39

CANINE (The Complete Article Nine) is a unique set of learning materials designed to assist both law students and lawyers to be effective Article 9 practitioners. It consists of a comprehensive collection of text and interactive problems modeled after a conventional casebook or treatise. The text is designed to be used with a commercially available set of commercial law statutes. The online version has the same content as found in the hardcopy, but in addition it provides hyperlinks that allow users to pull up statutory and secondary references and a keyword search capability.

The interactive problem sets found at the end of each chapter are likely to be the most valuable section for students, and may be done as stand-alone exercises. In the online version they provide the immediate feedback that is so important for effective learning. The tailoring of feedback to fit a user's level of expertise and understanding allows a user to proceed at his or her own pace and to reexamine questions and feedback as the user may wish.

CT11_1

This lesson teaches the Capital Asset Pricing Model. It begins by discussing risk and its control by diversification, and how betas measure the risk of diversified portfolios.

The lesson is designed to guide the student through the CAPM in detail as part of a Corporate Finance or Mergers & Acquisitions course. In courses that do not cover the CAPM in detail, such as Business Association courses or Securities Regulation, this lesson can be used as further study or for skimming.

1-5 hours
CORP35

This lesson is designed to be used either as an introduction or as a review of the parties who are involved with negotiable instruments governed by Article 3 of the Uniform Commercial Code. This lesson will teach you to identify the various players who are involved in the use of negotiable instruments. It can be used to introduce you to these players, help you sort them out, or to reinforce what you already understand.

The governing law is found in the Uniform Commercial Code, Articles 1, 3, and 4. Throughout this lesson, references to sections numbers are to sections in the 1990 version of the Uniform Commercial Code. We will point out where the 1990 version differs from the 2002 version, and the effect(s) of such differences.

30 minutes as a review; 1 hour as an introduction
NP10

This exercise deals with attack and support of the character of parties, victims, and witnesses; the use of reputation and opinion testimony as character evidence; and the admissibility of other crimes, wrongs, or acts as evidence falling outside the general ban on character evidence.

Part of the exercise is a simulated trial in which students are asked to decide whether to object to certain questions asked on direct or cross-examination. In a subsequent section, students play the role of judge and rule on objections. Other sections of the exercise require students to respond to questions about factual hypotheticals.

2 hours
EVD04

This exercise helps you to learn how to characterize a remedy as legal or equitable. This is a significant characterization, as many important substantive and procedural rights can turn on this characterization. This lesson is probably best studied in conjunction with a course in Equity or Remedies, though one can use the lesson for independent self study of the topic. You may want to study the CALI lessons History of Equity and Equitable Remedies - An Overview first. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to identify the characteristics of equity.

30-45 minutes
REM03

In this lesson, we explore issues relating to the United States Supreme Court's landmark decision in Chevron, U.S.A., Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., 467 U.S. 837 (1984). In that case, the Court suggested that courts should "defer" to an administrative agency's interpretation of its governing statute under certain circumstances. The lesson examines the concept of deference, its consistency with other legal principles (e.g., the Court's landmark decision in Marbury v. Madison), the meaning and limits of deference, and the various types of deference (e.g., Skidmore deference as contrasted with Chevron deference). The lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and who wish to refine and expand their knowledge.

1 hour (40 minutes without the essay)
ADM14

This lesson is intended to be used as both an introduction to Child Custody Jurisdiction and as a review for students who have already studied the material.

1 hour
FAM10

This lesson explores the standards for modifying child custody orders and the policies underlying same. It is an introductory lesson and assumes an understanding of the issues involved in making an initial custody decree. This lesson should be worked, for review and reinforcement, after the topic has been covered in class. The lesson may also serve as a substitute for covering this topic in class, as long as the student has covered the more general topic of initial custody decision making. The lesson does not cover interstate jurisdiction or relocation (moving the child out of the jurisdiction). Those topics are covered in other lessons. 

45 minutes, plus another 20 minutes for the essay
FAM04

This lesson reviews the guidance provided to attorneys by the Model Rules of Professional Conduct on selecting, rejecting or withdrawing from the representation of clients. The Model Rules studied in particular are Rules 1.16 and 6.2. Each section can be studied separately.

1 hour
PR12

This lesson is second in a series that takes a look at formation of agreements governed by the U.N. Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG). The CISG provides a uniform set of rules for international sales contracts where the parties are located in different signatory countries. There are 11 separate provisions on contract formation under the CISG. This lesson sets out the basic requisites for determining whether an offer exists, when it is accepted and how to address a battle of the forms if the CISG applies. The general attributes of domestic contracts and other CISG contracts are covered in other lessons.

45 minutes
CON75

This lesson is third in a series that takes a look at performance of agreements governed by the U.N. Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG). The CISG provides a uniform set of rules for international sales contracts where the parties are located in different signatory countries. There are 11 separate provisions on contract formation under the CISG. This lesson sets out the basic obligations of sellers and buyers, as well as looking at the ICC's Incoterms and how they affect the seller's obligations. The general attributes of domestic contracts and other CISG contract issues are covered in other lessons.

1 hour
CON76

This lesson is first in a series that takes a look at the basics of agreements governed by the U.N. Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG). The CISG provides a uniform set of rules for international sales contracts where the parties are located in different signatory countries. While some of the rules parallel those under the common law and Article 2 of the U.C.C., many are different. This lesson sets out the basic requisites for determining when the CISG applies and evaluating contracts governed by the CISG. The general attributes of domestic contracts and other CISG contracts are covered in other lessons.

1 hour
CON74

This exercise provides a comprehensive review of federal environmental citizen suits, focusing on the citizen suit provision of the Clean Water Act. The student is presented with a series of hypothetical violations of the Clean Water Act and is asked questions regarding whether judicial review is available under the citizen suit provision of the Act for those violations, the jurisdictional or procedural limits that are placed on review, and limits on the type of relief that is available.

1 - 1.5 hours
ENV01

This lesson considers the special classification issues associated with pensions, professional licenses and goodwill, personal injury and workers' compensation awards, and life insurance. The student should have a general understanding of the distinction between marital and separate property before working this lesson. The lesson can be used as an introduction to or review of the materials covered. It also works well as an independent lesson.

1 hour
FAM13

This Lessonette® exercise will introduce you to the technology-based emissions limitations for the criteria air pollutants that apply to stationary sources regulated under the Clean Air Act. It can act as an introduction to the subject, or you can use this Lessonette interactive tutorial as part of a review of Clean Air Act stationary source regulation at the end of your studies of the Clean Air Act or before your final exam. No outside resources are required to complete this Lessonette exercise. However, this Lessonette assumes that you are already familiar with Clean Air Act "stationary sources" in general; if you aren't, you should complete the Lessonette entitled "Regulated Sources Under the Clean Air Act" before continuing this Lessonette.

45 minutes
ENV11

This Lessonette® exercise will introduce you to the technology-based emissions limitations that apply to stationary sources regulated under the Clean Air Act that emit hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). It can act as an introduction to the subject, or you can use this Lessonette interactive tutorial as part of your review of Clean Air Act stationary source regulations at the end of your studies of the Clean Air Act or before your final exam. No outside resources are required to complete this Lessonette exercise if you connected to the web as you complete it. Otherwise, you will need the list of hazardous air pollutants found at section 112(b)(1) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. section 7412(b)(1).

This Lessonette assumes that you already understand the differences between Clean Air Act stationary sources and Clean Air Act mobile sources. If this distinction is unfamiliar to you, you should complete the Lessonette entitled "Regulated Sources Under the Clean Air Act" before completing this Lessonette.

30 minutes
ENV12

This lesson can serve as either a comprehensive introduction to, or a comprehensive review of, the elements of Clean Water Act jurisdiction. It refers to cases that you may have studied in your Environmental Law course, but knowledge of the cases is not required in order to complete the lesson. In addition, no prior knowledge of the Clean Water Act itself or of the implementing agency regulations is necessary in order to complete this lesson, although the lesson can also reinforce your understanding of the elements of Clean Water Act jurisdiction if you have already studied those elements.

Finally, this lesson allows you to improve your skills in looking up statutory provisions, if you so desire. If you wish to use the Statute Look-Up mode of this lesson, you should have with you a copy of the Clean Water Act before you begin. You will not need any regulations in order to complete the Statute Look-Up mode.

If you do not have a copy of the statute, or do not wish to look up the relevant provisions of the Clean Water Act, this lesson will supply all of the statutory language that you need.

1.5 hours (2.5 hours in Statute Lookup Mode)
ENV05

In this podcast, Prof. Craig offers students tips on mastering statutory courses, with particular focus on Clean Water Act jurisdiction. This podcast complements Prof. Craig's CALI lesson on the same topic.

Download:
11:09 minutes
ENV05P

This lesson is an introduction to the types of Clean Water Act permits, the terms of a permit, and the effect of a permit. It can function either as an initial introduction to this subject or as a review of material covered in class.

However, this lesson will make more sense if the student is already familiar with the basics of Clean Water Act jurisdiction. It is therefore recommended that the student review Clean Water Act jurisdiction or complete the lesson entitled "Clean Water Act Jurisdiction" before attempting this lesson.

1 hour
ENV06

This CALI lesson will introduce you to the ethical considerations associated with writing client advice letters. The lesson is intended for a first year law student currently taking a legal writing course. No previous knowledge of ethics is presumed.

A series of explanations and questions will guide you through a basic introduction to the regulation of attorney conduct. You will then examine how ethical considerations influence the lawyering skills associated with the preparation of advice letters.

30 minutes
LWR44

This lesson reviews problems in client identification. The lesson is in the form of a game show CLIENT OR NOT?! in which students are presented with an individual who is claiming to be a client. The student may choose the type of liability/responsibility they wish to risk in giving their answer (Competence, Confidentiality or Conflict of Interest). They then will be asked under the circumstances raising that issue whether the individual is a client. Students may proceed through the entire lesson reviewing client identification under one or all of these three issues.

45 minutes
PR14

Climate change is the major emerging environmental law problem of the 21st century. However, understanding the legal issues surrounding climate change, both internationally and domestically, will be easier if you have a basic comprehension of what climate change is.

This lesson, the first in a series, presents an overview of what climate change is and why it matters to environmental law. In particular, this lesson will look at the causes of climate change and the impacts that it is having and will have on the environment.

30-45 minutes
ENV31

Climate change mitigation refers to methods to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and/or to reduce the growing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This lesson looks at the international framework for addressing climate change mitigation, as established in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its protocols.

This lesson assumes that the student has a basic familiarity with climate change but little or no exposure to the UNFCCC. The lesson consists of 15 questions.

30-45 minutes
ENV32

This lesson is the third in the climate change series. It is designed to introduce students to the concept of climate change adaptation -- that is, the processes whereby humans respond to the ecological changes that climate change is causing.

This lesson is the companion lesson to "Climate Change 2: Climate Change Mitigation," which covers the concept of alleviating climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. Students will benefit from completing these lessons in order.

45 minutes
ENV33

As of the beginning of 2010, Congress had not enacted comprehensive federal legislation to address climate change. Nevertheless, a number of plaintiffs--mostly non-governmental organizations, or NGOs--have been using litigation to attempt to educate the public and prompt effective responses.

This lesson examines the litigation that has used common law to address climate change, reviewing both the theories used and the success of those cases. It consists of 16 questions and assumes that students are unfamiliar with most of the common-law climate change litigation; no prior knowledge of the specific cases is required. However, students should have a general familiarity with certain basic common-law causes of action, especially nuisance.

30-45 minutes
ENV34

This is the last of five CALI lessons on climate change. It explores the ways in which litigants and agencies have tried to use existing federal environmental statutes -- the Clean Air Act, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Endangered Species Act, and the Clean Water Act -- to address climate change.

If you are unfamiliar with climate change, you should complete the CALI lessons entitled Climate Change 1, Climate Change 2, and Climate Change 3 before attempting this lesson. Climate Change 4, which discusses the use of common law to address climate change, is interchangeable in sequence with this lesson.

This lesson assumes that the student has a basic familiarity with the federal environmental statutes discussed above. However, it does not assume that the student knows the relevant cases.

30-45 minutes
ENV35

This lesson tries to explain Coasean irrelevance (which is often known as the "Coase Theorem").

45 minutes to 3 hours
LCS02

Cohabitants may litigate to obtain property, support, a share of an estate, or for derivative benefits such as wrongful death or survivor's benefits. This lesson reviews theories of recovery for cohabiting couples who were not formally married.

The lesson explores contract, quasi-contract and equitable theories of recovery such as constructive and resulting trusts, quantum meruit, promissory estoppel and implied contract. Note that not all states allow all remedies reviewed in this lesson.

This lesson does not cover domestic partnerships or common law marriage.

The lesson can be used as an introduction to the materials or for review.

1 hour
FAM21

This lesson explores the Lanham Act provisions governing federal registration of collective marks and certification marks.

30 minutes
TM06

This lesson focuses on issues related to the commencement of legislative rulemaking proceedings. Accordingly, it focuses on how such proceedings are commenced and by whom. It also focuses on rules that are exempt from rulemaking requirements. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and wish to refine and further their knowledge.

45 minutes
ADM12

Focusing on the Clean Water Act and the Endangered Species Act, this lesson gives a brief overview of the ways in which federal environmental and natural resources law can raise issues regarding the federal government's constitutional authority to regulate pursuant to the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution. In particular, it looks at the possible limitations on the federal government's Commerce Clause authority as a result of the U.S. Supreme Court's 1995 decision in United States v. Lopez and as a result of federalism and land use considerations.

This lesson consists of 12 questions. Students should have some familiarity with the federal Endangered Species Act and the federal Clean Water Act before beginning this lesson.

45-60 minutes
ENV16

This lesson covers characterization of commingled property at divorce. It covers tracing, transmutation, differentiation between income and passive appreciation and other rules regarding characterization of commingled property as marital or separate.

Computation of the separate and marital portions of mixed pensions, a common asset of divorcing parties, involves complex issues that are beyond the scope of this lesson.

Before beginning this lesson, students must have a good understanding of the difference between community or marital and separate property, and the principles of equitable distribution. It is recommended that students first complete the lesson on property division at divorce.

Note - Some states treat all property owned by either spouse, no matter how or when it was acquired, as marital. This lesson does not apply to states that do not differentiate between marital/community and separate property. Nor does it apply to states that treat all commingled property as marital or community.

40 minutes
FAM24

This lesson deals with the "committed to agency discretion" exception to judicial review. Under the federal Administrative Procedure Act, courts tend to assume that administrative action is subject to review. However, there are several situations when courts will decline to exercise their review authority. One of those situations is the subject of this lesson: when administrative action has been committed to agency discretion by law. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and who wish to further refine their knowledge and understanding of these issues.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM18

The goal of this lesson is to introduce you to the basics of conducting company and industry research. Company research is the process of gathering information about a specific company. Once you have information about a company, you may need to know how that company is faring within its industry. Industry is a group of companies that produce similar products or provide similar services. Companies within an industry can be compared to one another or an analysis of the industry itself can be done to see how it is faring.

45 minutes
LWR17

This is the first in a series of lessons on the topic of "Compensatory Damages." It is designed as an "Introduction" to the overall concept of "compensatory damages" as well as to the key terminologies that are typically associated with these types of damages. For beginning law students, this Lesson should be completed first, before proceeding to any other Lessons that address more complex damages issues, as it contains a thorough presentation of the various terminologies and concepts that are unique to this specialized area of the law. Advanced law students may wish to use this Lesson as a review of these same basic "Damages" terminologies, either in preparation for other courses in which substantive Damages issues may be presented, or as a more general review. In either case, it is recommended that students proceed through this Lesson in the sequence presented, to gain a better understanding of the inter-relationships that exist among the various individual Damage-related terms and concepts.

45 minutes
REM05

This lesson deals with a topic more commonly known as alimony, spousal support, or maintenance. Its focus is Chapter 5 of the American Law Institute Principles of the Law of Family Dissolution. This is an introductory lesson. It assumes you have spent little or no time discussing this material in class.

The lesson is divided into three parts:

  • Part I contains introductory provisions.
  • Part II concentrates on awards based on disparate spousal earning capacity (ALI Topic 2 awards).
  • Part III concentrates on awards based on reimbursement and rescission (ALI Topic 3 awards).

45 minutes
FAM06

This lesson addresses the protection afforded to compilations (including collective works) under United States copyright law. It deals with the issues of what constitutes sufficient originality (including special focus on factual compilations) and the extent and ownership of the resulting copyright (in particular, as regards collective works). It assumes a general understanding of the originality requirement and basic copyright infringement analysis. The lesson can be used either as supplemental, more detailed coverage when class time permits only passing treatment of the topic or as a followup to in-class discussion to confirm and reinforce understanding.

1 to 1.5 hours
CPY06

This lesson will introduce you to the concept of Gross Income, usually the first concept students encounter in their study of the Federal income tax system. This lesson will also discuss certain exclusions, deductions and other concepts encountered in the calculation of Gross Income. This lesson will be useful to the novice student as it introduces the student to the typical analysis tax lawyers engage in.

60-75 minutes
TAX02

Students are given hypothetical fact situations and asked whether the testimony offered would be hearsay. The exercise provides practice in applying the concept that an utterance is hearsay if it is offered to show the truth of matters asserted therein. It contains examples of utterances that are not hearsay because they are offered to show their effect upon the auditor, because they are legally operative language, or because they are offered as circumstantial evidence of the declarant’s state of mind. Questions about the hearsay status of nonverbal conduct are also included. The exercise deals only with the concept of hearsay, not with exceptions to the hearsay rule.

The questions and text used in this exercise are different from those in the exercise entitled Hearsay From Square One: The Definition of Hearsay, so both exercises can be used by the same student without duplication. If both exercises are used, the author recommends that Hearsay from Square One be used first.

1 - 3 hours (student option).
EVD01

This lesson explores the constitutional rules requiring confrontation of hearsay declarants in criminal prosecutions, with special emphasis on Crawford v. Washington, 541 U.S. 36 (2004), and its progeny.

30 to 40 minutes
CRMPRO11

This lesson explores some of the rules surrounding police searches based on a citizen's consent. Students will be able to critically examine the law and the policies that permit consent searches under certain circumstances.

45 minutes
CRMPRO10

This lesson discusses the role of federal preemption in the implementation of environmental law. Specifically, when do federal environmental and natural resources statutes preempt, or displace, state laws on similar subjects? When are states free to enact their own environmental protections? What is the relationship between federal environmental law and state torts?

This lesson consists of 15 questions and is intended to work both as a review for students who have already studied these issues and as introduction for students new to the concept of federal preemption in environmental law.

30-45 minutes
ENV21

This lesson is intended as an overview of Constitutional Law principles that are important in Family Law. It can be used at the beginning of the Family Law course as a refresher of Constitutional Law. It can also be used during the course to clarify general constitutional doctrine. This lesson is related to two other lessons regarding constitutional aspects of Family Law.

30 minutes
FAM12

This lesson is intended as an overview of Constitutional Rights that are important in Family Law. It can be used at the beginning of the Family Law course as a refresher, or during the course to clarify general doctrine, or at the end of the course as review.

This lesson has two related lessons. Constitutional Powers and Structures Review for Family Law is an overview of the "structures" rather than the "rights" portions of Constitutional Law. The Constitutional Aspects of Family Law is a more extensive lesson which examines the constitutional dimensions of specific areas such as marriage, divorce, parenting, procreation, contraception, sexuality, and other issues.

30- 45 minutes
FAM15

This lesson is an examination of the constitutional law aspects of Family Law. It builds upon lessons which provide a review of Constitutional Law in the Family Law context, but is much more detailed. It is intended as a supplement and review of constitutional doctrine as it occurs in specific Family Law areas such as marriage, divorce, parenting, procreation, sexuality, the rights of minors, and end-of life issues.

60 - 90 minutes
FAM19

Note: This lesson uses Flash and is unable to be viewed on a device that does not have the Flash player installed. Scoring for this lesson is also unavailable at this time.

This lesson provides a graphic exploration of the complex and ambiguous placement of the administrative process in our constitutional scheme and the relationship of that process to the legislative, executive and judicial branches.

1 hour
ADM05

This lesson provides a review of the constitutional requirements for standing in federal courts that citizen plaintiffs must fulfill in order to bring environmental citizen suits in the federal courts. These requirements apply to citizen suits brought pursuant to either citizen suit provisions in specific environmental or natural resources statutes, such as the Clean Water Act and the Endangered Species Act, or the federal Administrative Procedure Act.

This lesson assumes that students have already studied standing in their Environmental Law or Administrative Law courses.

45 minutes
ENV18

This lesson provides an overview of both criminal and civil contempt. It includes both direct and indirect contempt, as well as compensatory civil contempt and coercive civil contempt. It covers the differences among these types of contempt in their function and procedures and explores why it is important to distinguish among them.

1.5 hours
REM19

This lesson examines the two types of secondary liability in copyright law -- contributory infringement and vicarious liability. Before attempting this lesson, students should be familiar with the exclusive rights that belong to a copyright owner, and should understand the concept of direct infringement. Note: This lesson was written while the Supreme Court was still considering MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd., cert. granted, 125 S. Ct. 686 (2004), the outcome of which may alter the standard for contributory infringement.

30 minutes plus 15-minute essay
CPY17

This lesson will introduce you to the GNU/Linux operating system and its interaction with Copyright Law.

You can complete this lesson without any exposure to the law of copyrights, but the other CALI lessons on copyright will explore basic copyright concepts.  This lesson will be helpful to students studying concepts of ownership in the copyright context. After this lesson and the model answers to the essay questions, you will understand the interaction between current copyright and licensing law and the open source movement's freedom.

45 minutes
CPY05

This lesson gives the basics of copyright and trademark research, including historical background, statutes, regulations, cases, secondary sources, international materials, and current awareness tools.

45 minutes
LR51

This lesson deals with copyright duration, an arcane, technical and somewhat laborious subject that is not always covered in depth in copyright law or intellectual property law courses. Therefore, it is assumed that this is the student's initial exposure to the subject matter. Nevertheless, copyright duration is one of the few areas of copyright law that is filled with certitude. After divining the relevant background information concerning the creation of a work, including manner of authorship responsible for creating the work, the specific date on which copyright protection for a work has or will end can be determined. Only copyright duration under United States copyright law is addressed.

1 hour
CPY03

This lesson covers some of the basic formalities of copyright: notice, registration, and deposit. Attention is given to changes wrought by the 1976 Act and the Berne Convention Implementation Act.

50 minutes
CPY04

Copyright Law may seem shrouded in mystery: how can you create, transfer, and protect property interests in something intangible? This lesson provides an overview of how it is done, focusing on copyright protection for music. This focus takes advantage of the multimedia capacity of the program; for example, you can listen to two musical works to determine whether one infringes the other, and you can listen to the parody version of "Pretty Woman" that figured in a decision of the United States Supreme Court. Students familiar with copyright law will find many resources beyond those they studied in class. Hypertext links take you to cases and statutes, and addresses are provided for web sites where you can obtain additional information.

1-2 hours
IP01

This lesson introduces the user to the copyright issues that pertain to sound recordings. The lesson illustrates the difference between sound recordings and other works, the nature of the exclusive rights granted to the owners of sound recording copyrights, some of the problems resulting from the interaction of sound recording copyrights with other copyrights, and key limitations on sound recording copyrights. Users should have knowledge of basic copyright principles before using this program.

1 hour
CPY14

This lesson focuses on state corporation law restrictions on distributions to shareholders. It does not cover restrictions on distributions arising from other sources, such as contractual restrictions, the law of fraudulent conveyance, or federal bankruptcy law.

The lesson begins with a brief look at the required procedure to approve corporate distributions, then turns to the types of distributions covered by the legal restrictions, focusing primarily on the definition of "distribution" in the revised Model Business Corporation Act. The majority of the lesson deals with the various cash flow and balance sheet tests used to restrict distributions. The focus is on the revised MBCA and Delaware law, but earned surplus restrictions are also discussed. A separate section of the lesson discusses complications: revaluation of assets and liabilities, restating the corporate capital accounts, the effect of preferential rights, and timing issues that arise primarily when debt is distributed. The lesson also discusses the possible liability of directors for authorizing, and shareholders for accepting, unlawful distributions.

No prior knowledge of accounting is necessary for this lesson. The lesson includes a brief, minimalist introduction to the necessary accounting concepts; that material may be bypassed by students with sufficient knowledge of accounting concepts.

1 hour 20 minutes
CORP12

This lesson examines a subset of the fiduciary obligations of directors and officers--their duty of loyalty to the corporation--the Corporate Opportunity Doctrine.

Directors and Officers have a fiduciary obligation NOT to appropriate certain business opportunities for personal gain. This lesson will set out a framework for determining (1) whether a business opportunity is a "corporate opportunity" and (2) if it is a "corporate opportunity", a procedure by which a director or officer may pursue it without risking liability.

45 minutes
CORP21

Credit cards allow the cardholder to make purchases without using cash since the purchases are made with debt. The terms of the lending arrangement are governed by the agreement between the cardholder and the issuer, but federal regulations play an important part. In this lesson we will look at issuance of credit cards, disclosure requirements, use of credit cards, and the risk of error and loss on credit cards.

75 minutes
NP06

This lesson will review general principles of custody disputes including terminology and factors used in resolving custody disputes. Separate lessons will cover custody jurisdiction, modification, and visitation.

30 minutes
FAM01

The definition and location of customary international law is a difficult research task. This lesson begins by defining customary international law and placing customary international law into context through historical examples. Two research strategies for locating custom will be introduced. The first strategy is to locate pre-defined custom using a source that discusses state practice that has risen to the level of custom. The second and more complex strategy involves searching directly for evidence of customary international law.

30 minutes
LR56

This lesson deals with the basic and specific measures of damages recoverable for tortious injuries to the interest in use and enjoyment of personal property. Students will be acquainted with conceptual and pragmatic problems of valuing the interest in use and enjoyment of personal property. The several methods used by the courts for valuing the interest are explored in the context of concrete problems. Topics include: cost of renting a substitute, inconvenience, the earning power that the chattel holds, and monetary interest calculated upon the value of the chattel.

1 hour
TRT22

This lesson deals with basic and specific measures of damages recoverable in torts for harms to the interest in maintaining the physical integrity of personal property. Invasions of this interest are distinct from invasions of the interest in exclusive possession and the interest in use and enjoyment, and the law of damages reflects the differences. In order to deal effectively with the differences, separate lessons treat the interests in possession and use and enjoyment. The substance of causes of action available in torts for recovering damages is not treated here.

Before working in this lesson the student should complete the lessons on General Concepts of Damages in Torts and Fundamentals of Damages for Harms to Personal Property.

1.25 hours
TRT23

This lesson deals with basic and specific measures of damages recoverable for tortious invasions of the interest in exclusive possession of personal property.

The student will be presented with concrete situations in which to consider application of rules and concepts of the law of damages. Analytically, invasions of the interest are separated into permanent deprivations and temporary deprivations and the different rules applicable to the two different contexts are explored.

Coverage of the topic includes introduction to the problems of: determining the relevant market for reference in valuing the chattel; valuing chattels which have fluctuating value; ascertainable value and the relevance of that term to the issue of whether prejudgment interest on the value of the chattel should be included as damages; rental value as a measure of loss of use; recoverability of damages for emotional distress for the deprivation, among others.

Before working on this lesson, the student should complete the lessons on General Concepts of Damages in Torts and Fundamentals of Damages for Harms to Personal Property. Basic and specific measures of damages recoverable for tortious invasions of the interest in exclusive possession of personal property.

1 hour
TRT21

This lesson deals with basic principles and measures of damages recoverable for harms to real property. The analysis to which students will be acquainted examines the harms in the context of three categories of interests to be protected by the law of damages. Those categories, which are separately treated in the lesson, are exclusive possession, physical integrity and use and enjoyment. The student will be given an opportunity to apply the principles and measures to concrete situations, some of which will raise issues about whether the principles and measures work well to protect the interests under examination. The lesson assumes the student is familiar with basic concepts of damages and has completed the lesson of that title.

1 hour
TRT15

This lesson covers the common law rules and various statutory approaches governing recovery of damages for injuries resulting in death. Questions and problems in the lesson consider the circumstances under which and the extent to which damages are available to protect the interests of persons who die as a result of tortious injuries and the interests of the survivors of those persons.

Students working on the lesson are required to solve problems by parsing and applying statutory language of survivor statutes and wrongful death statutes drawn from eleven different states. In one question, students are invited to construct their own statutory provision to address a problem of coordination between survival and wrongful death statutes.

Students who successfully complete the lesson will have a good working grasp of the different interests addressed by survival statutes and wrongful death statutes; how to calculate damages under each; and the limitations upon recovery that such statutes are likely to contain. Completion of the lesson on Damages for Personal Injuries prior to working on this lesson is highly recommended.

1.5 hours
TRT43

This lesson covers the general principles and basic measures governing the remedy of damages for personal injuries. It explores issues and problems that confront a person seeking the damages remedy to address tortiously-inflicted physical harm.

The lesson considers the damages remedy by examining the general and special rules that govern legal protection of the interests in preserving bodily integrity, mental integrity, and ability to pursue a livelihood. In a series of situations presenting harms to those interests, the student will be asked to analyze the situations, then select, apply and assess those rules.

Working on the problems in the lesson will expose the student to concepts such as ascertainability; the collateral source rule; loss of earnings capacity; mental anguish; pain and suffering; prejudgment interest; reduction to present value; and work life expectancy among others.

A separate lesson, Damages for Injuries that Cause Death, deals with the issues and problems of remedying the ultimate physical injury. Before working in this lesson the student should first complete the lesson on General Concepts of Damages in Torts.

1.5 hours
TRT41

This lesson is an introduction to the basics of dangerous dog laws and is the first part in a series of three lessons that examines their interaction with the Fourteenth Amendment's procedural due process requirement. This lesson does not require any prior knowledge of animal laws or dangerous dog laws. While some general knowledge of due process might be helpful, it is not necessary or required.

Best Friends Animal Society is a nonprofit, membership organization building no-kill programs and partnerships that will bring about a day when there are No More Homeless Pets. The society's leading initiatives in animal care and community programs are coordinated from its Kanab, Utah, headquarters, the country's largest no-kill sanctuary. This work is made possible by the support of a grassroots network of members and community partners across the nation.

40 minutes
ARL02

This lesson is part 2 in a series examining dangerous dog laws and their interaction with the Fourteenth Amendment's procedural due process requirement, specifically void-for-vagueness challenges. This lesson does not require any prior knowledge of animal laws or dangerous dog laws. While some general knowledge of due process might be helpful, it is not necessary or required.

Best Friends Animal Society is a nonprofit, membership organization building no-kill programs and partnerships that will bring about a day when there are No More Homeless Pets. The society's leading initiatives in animal care and community programs are coordinated from its Kanab, Utah, headquarters, the country's largest no-kill sanctuary. This work is made possible by the support of a grassroots network of members and community partners across the nation.

40 minutes
ARL03

This lesson examines dangerous dog laws and their interaction with the Fourteenth Amendment's procedural due process requirement. It is the final lesson in a series of three examining this part of the law. This lesson does not require any prior knowledge of animal laws or dangerous dog laws. While some general knowledge of due process might be helpful, it is not necessary or required.

Best Friends Animal Society is a nonprofit, membership organization building no-kill programs and partnerships that will bring about a day when there are No More Homeless Pets. The society's leading initiatives in animal care and community programs are coordinated from its Kanab, Utah, headquarters, the country's largest no-kill sanctuary. This work is made possible by the support of a grassroots network of members and community partners across the nation.

35 minutes
ARL04

Bank debit cards (sometimes called bank cards or ATM cards) may look like credit cards, but they do not typically have the same features or provide the same protections against loss. Debit cards are associated with a checking (or savings) account owned by the customer. In this lesson we will look at issuance of debit cards, disclosure requirements, imposition of overdraft fees, and the handling of errors and losses on debit cards.

45 minutes
NP03

This lesson examines remedial options in defamation litigation. Included within the scope of this lesson are the remedies of injunctions and damages. These remedies are examined from both a common law and constitutional perspective. This lesson is designed for students who have studied this material in class and wish to refine and develop their knowledge.

45 minutes
REM29

The student plays the role of a lawyer in a hypothetical criminal trial. As the trial progresses the student is faced with various problems raising issues under the ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct and the ABA Standards for Criminal Justice. The lesson asks what should be done in each situation and responds to the student’s answer by commenting upon it, asking further questions, or progressing further with the trial.

This lesson was revised in accordance with the Model Rules of Conduct, as amended through August 2003.

1.5 hours
PR07

This lesson is designed to help students understand the term "search" as it is used under the Fourth Amendment. As we shall see, the term is a term of art which does not always correspond to popular conceptions or definitions of the term search. In this lesson, we explore the various facets and definitions of the term. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and who would like to refine their knowledge.

45 minutes
CRMPRO02

This lesson is part of another CALI lesson "The Definition of Hearsay and the Federal Rules." That lesson was divided into three parts for students who wish to cover the material in smaller modules. This lesson prepares the student for material covered in the final two modules, "The Definition of Hearsay and the Federal Rules Part 2: Statements and What They Assert" and "The Definition of Hearsay and the Federal Rules Part 3: Hearsay Arguments."

In this lesson, "The Definition of Hearsay and the Federal Rules Part I: Substantive Rules and Hearsay Dangers" the focus is on basic, non-controversial distinctions between hearsay and non-hearsay, which should be correct in any jurisdiction.

1.25 hours
EVD10_1

This lesson is part of another CALI lesson "The Definition of Hearsay and the Federal Rules." That lesson was divided into three parts for students who wish to cover the material in smaller modules. This lesson builds on material covered in the first module, "The Definition of Hearsay and the Federal Rules Part 1: Substantive Rules and Hearsay Dangers" and prepares the student for material covered in the final module, "The Definition of Hearsay and the Federal Rules Part 3: Hearsay Arguments."

In this lesson, the focus is on more difficult and controversial topics in the application of the hearsay rules and the definition of hearsay, particularly issues pertaining to implied assertions. This part 2 focuses on the typical resolution of those questions under the Federal Rules of Evidence.

1 hour
EVD10_2

This lesson is part of another CALI lesson "The Definition of Hearsay and the Federal Rules." That lesson was divided into three parts for students who wish to cover the material in smaller modules. This lesson builds on the material covered in the first two modules, "The Definition of Hearsay and the Federal Rules Part 1: Substantive Rules and Hearsay Dangers" and "The Definition of Hearsay and the Federal Rules Part 2: Statements and What They Assert."

Part 3 introduces students to alternative approaches to the definition of hearsay, and their relation to the Federal Rules of Evidence. In the second part of this lessons, Arguments from the Approaches, presents a number of hypothetical problems. In each case, the lesson asks students to assess whether particular sorts of analysis support an argument about the application of the definition of hearsay.

1.5 hours
EVD10_3

This lesson is now divided into three parts. See CALI lessons
The Definition of Hearsay and the Federal Rules Part 1: Substantive Rules and Hearsay Dangers

The Definition of Hearsay and the Federal Rules Part 2: Statements and What They Assert

The Definition of Hearsay and the Federal Rules Part 3: Hearsay Arguments.

The first section of this lesson, Baseline Hearsay, is designed to introduce students to the definition of hearsay in the Federal Rules of Evidence, as the courts typically apply it. This part of the lesson covers Substantive Rules and Hearsay Dangers, which deals with basic, non-controversial distinctions under the rules, and Statements and What They Assert, which addresses more difficult and controversial questions, particularly issues pertaining to implied assertions.

The second section, Hearsay Arguments, focuses on the underpinnings of the hearsay definition and on less conventional understandings of that definition. It is especially useful for students enrolled in advanced evidence and trial practice courses. In the first part of this section, Four Additional Approaches, students are introduced to alternative approaches to the definition of hearsay. The second part of this section, Arguments from the Approaches, presents a number of hypothetical problems. In each case, the program asks students to assess whether particular sorts of analysis support an argument about the application of the definition of hearsay.

5 hours
EVD10

This lesson will familiarize students with the "Unocal Doctrine", a standard of judicial review under Delaware law. The Unocal doctrine applies to a board's defensive conduct when opposing a hostile takeover and attempting to prevent a change of corporate control.

The lesson is the first of two lessons concerning Delaware's heightened standards of judicial review of board action in transactions involving control. The other lesson involves the "Revlon" and "Blasius" doctrines.

45 minutes
CORP23

This lesson will familiarize students with the "Revlon" and "Blasius" doctrines, standards of judicial review under Delaware law. The Revlon doctrine applies to board actions taken when a change of control or sale of the corporation is inevitable. The Blasius doctrine applies when a board has acted with the primary purpose of interfering with a shareholder vote.

The time to complete this lesson varies depending on whether you decide to complete the section entitled "Review of Delaware law."

This lesson is the second of two CALI lessons concerning Delaware's heightened standards of judicial review of board action in transactions involving control. The other lesson involves the "Unocal" doctrine, which applies to a board's defensive antitakeover actions. It is strongly recommended that students work through the lessons in the suggested order, since this second lesson refers to and builds upon material covered in the first.

30 - 50 minutes
CORP24

This lesson examines the so-called "deliberative process privilege" (DPP) (a/k/a, "predecisional and deliberative privilege"). The DPP is a variant of Executive Privilege, and is applied to protect the confidentiality of administrative communications in various contexts. This lesson is intended for students who have studied the DPP in class, and who wish to refine and expand their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM22

This lesson is a review of the duty to support children and the growing federal role in determining child support.

30 minutes
FAM16

This lesson provides an analysis of the levels of distinctiveness and the requirements for the determination of whether a term chosen as a mark is inherently distinctive, must yet acquire distinctiveness, or is incapable of trademark protection regardless of distinctiveness. The lesson is intended as a review of material that is covered early in a Trademark Law course.

40 minutes
TM04

This lesson focuses on distribution of property that has already been identified and valued. Before beginning the lesson students should have a general understanding of the differences between common law and community property systems. They should also be aware of the basic distinction between marital and separate property. This lesson may be used either as an introduction to the distribution of property at divorce or as a refresher that tests a student's understanding of this subject.

45 minutes
FAM27

This lesson provides an introduction to one of the Copyright Act's section 106 exclusive rights, the distribution right. As you will glean from the lesson, the distribution right covers the copyright owner's exclusive right to distribute copies or phonorecords of copyrighted works by means of sale, transfer of ownership, or by rental. In addition, the distribution right creates a statutory right called the right of first publication. This lesson is intended as an introduction to the distribution right; its approach is to review the statutory basis for the distribution right and to review the basis for the right of first publication. This lesson is useful as both an introduction to the exclusive right of distribution, as well as a review.

45 minutes
CPY16

This lesson introduces the doctrine of equivalents, which permits a finding of patent infringement where the accused structure or process does not literally infringe, but differs only insubstantially from the claimed structure or process.

40 minutes
PAT08

In this lesson, you will learn about the application of the Double Jeopardy Clause to criminal prosecutions. You will consider such topics as the attachment of jeopardy, the definition of "same offense," and the dual sovereignty doctrine.

30 minutes
CRMPRO15

This exercise reviews the substance of contract law and demonstrates the application of the substantive law in the process of drafting. The exercise begins with a form contract. The student must rewrite the contract to suit the needs of the client. On completion, the student will have reviewed applicable principles from both the common law and the U.C.C. In addition, the student will have learned principles of drafting that can be applied either to revision of a form or to drafting from scratch.

1 - 1.5 hours
CON04

A large percentage of litigation arising out of contracts results from poor drafting. In order to eliminate this litigation, it is imperative that law students master good drafting skills. One of the most important aspects of drafting a contract is the operative language—language that affects legal relationships. This lesson is designed to introduce law students to operative language commonly used in drafting contracts, in particular, language of obligation (shall), language of authorization (may) and language of condition precedent (must). The lesson begins with a segment explaining each of the three categories of operative language followed by exercises which permit the student to apply his or her understanding of proper usage of that category. The lesson concludes with a segment of general exercises that test whether students have mastered the distinctions among the different categories of operative language.

45 minutes
LWR05

This lesson explores the legal aspects of drones in both military and civilian settings.

45-60 minutes
AVA11

This lesson covers the historical evolution of Congress's authority to enact legislation pursuant to the Commerce Clause. Congress's contemporary Commerce Clause authority is covered in a separate lesson.

45 minutes
CST04

This lesson explores the many uses of the doctrine of election of remedies. Students will discover that attorneys will invoke the doctrine of election of remedies to enforce statutory or contractual exclusivity of remedy; to require plaintiffs to be bound by their intentional choice; to protect defendants from prejudice due to their detrimental reliance on plaintiff's actions; to eliminate double recovery for the same wrong; or to eliminate splitting and relitigation of claims. By working through the problems in this lesson, students will become familiar with the many different purposes of the doctrine and recognize the overlap with other remedial doctrines, such as waiver, estoppel, laches, and res judicata.

45-60 minutes, depending on student's prior study
REM18

This exercise is designed for use in conjunction with any Federal Courts, Federal Jurisdiction, or Civil Rights course that covers the Eleventh Amendment. The exercise takes the student through attempts to bring a federal lawsuit to rectify substandard conditions at a home for the mentally ill.

0.5-1 hour
FEDC02

When an employer breaches an employment contract, the employee might seek any of several different types of remedies. In general, it will be difficult (if not impossible) for the employee to obtain injunctive relief against the employer. As a result, most of the litigation focuses on damages and the level of recovery that an employee might obtain against a breaching employer. This lesson focuses on the employee damage remedy, and is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and wish to refine their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
REM40

This lesson focuses on employee injunctive remedies against an employer. The issues raised by this lesson arise in a variety of different contexts, involving both low-level employees and famous individuals. They also involve various types of injunctive requests (e.g., attempts to enforce contracts, as well as for defamation). This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and wish to refine their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without essay)
REM39

This lesson deals with issues related to an employer's damage remedies for breach of an employment contract. As we shall see, employers might be able to claim various types of remedies depending on the circumstances and context. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and wish to expand and refine their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
REM41

This lesson deals with issues relating to an employer's ability to use injunctive remedies against an employee who breaches a contract. In addition to examining issues relating to affirmative and negative specific performance, it also examines covenants not to compete. The lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and wish to refine their knowledge.

1 hour (45 minutes without the essay)
REM38

This lesson is a review of child support enforcement at both the state and federal levels.

30 minutes
FAM22

This lesson covers the defense of laches to an equitable action. Students will learn when the defense applies, the elements necessary to establish the defense, and how courts consider the defense. Students will also learn to distinguish laches from the related defenses of Estoppel and the Statute of Limitations.

1 hour
REM06

In this Lessonette® exercise, we examine the concept of equitable discretion and gain insight into equitable precedent on the subject. This lesson was designed for use by students who have completed study of this topic in their basic remedies class, and want to further refine and expand their understanding of the concept.

45 minutes
REM12

This lesson will cover the remedy known as the Accounting for Profits. Frequently, this remedy is not covered extensively in the classroom setting, probably because the accounting for profits often accompanies other remedies which receive greater attention. Consequently, this lesson is designed to provide basic coverage of this remedial option. Another lesson, "Equitable Protection of Restitution: The Constructive Trust and Equitable Lien" is recommended. Taken together, students will learn when each form of relief is available, the advantages and disadvantages that each form offers and, when the choice is available, the strategic implications of choosing one form over another.

25 minutes
REM13

This lesson will cover two of the most powerful equitable remedies, the Constructive Trust and the Equitable Lien. This lesson is intended to supplement your classroom study of these remedial tools, and to explore their utility more deeply. Another lesson, "Equitable Protection of Restitution: The Accounting for Profits," is recommended. Taken together, students will learn when each form of relief is available, the advantages and disadvantages that each form offers and, when the choice is available, the strategic implications of choosing one form over another.

1 hour 15 minutes
REM17

This exercise gives a basic overview of the types of equitable remedies. You need not have read any particular materials or taken any particular law school courses in order to complete the tutorial. It can be used to provide background in your courses where equity is especially relevant or to review the types of equitable remedies for use in a remedies course. The lesson will not examine doctrines of substantive equity (other than to note their existence) nor will the lesson explore the prerequisites for obtaining, defending against, or enforcing equitable remedies. Rather, the lesson is designed to introduce you to the basic vocabulary of equitable remedies.

45 minutes
REM02

This lesson will introduce you to, or allow you to review, the major provisions of the Federal Endangered Species Act: section 4, 16 U.S.C. section 1533, which governs listings of endangered and threatened species; section 7, 16 U.S.C. section 1536, which imposes obligations on Federal agencies to protect endangered and threatened species; and section 9, 16 U.S.C. section 1538, which prohibits all persons from "taking" or trading in endangered and threatened species.

No prior familiarity with the ESA is necessary to complete this lesson. However, this lesson can also serve as a review of the ESA at the end of your course's unit on the ESA, or at the end of the term.

1.5 hours
ENV07

This lesson gives an overview of the basics of the European Union's trademark system. The emphasis is on issues of registration and infringement. It often uses a comparative approach, with the U.S. system as a foil. It takes users through both the national systems (via the Trademark Harmonization Directive) and the Community Trademark system. Familiarity with U.S. trademark law is assumed.

1 hour
TM26

Note: This lesson uses Flash and is unable to be viewed on a device that does not have the Flash player installed. Scoring for this lesson is also unavailable at this time.

This lesson examines the source of ex parte communications in administrative agencies, the typical targets of such communications, and the law which governs them. It treats both formal and informal proceedings and both rulemaking and adjudication procedures.

45 minutes
ADM03

This lesson explores the exceptions to an attorney's ethical duty of confidentiality that are designed to protect third persons from death, injury or financial loss. The lesson examines these exceptions as expressed by the American Bar Association's Model Rules of Professional Conduct and notes some of the variations on these rules found among the states.

30 minutes
PR17

This lesson will discuss the Exclusionary Rule, the circumstances under which it may be raised, and two important exceptions to its use -- the Impeachment Exception and the Leon Good Faith Exception. The lesson will not cover the Fruit of the Poisonous Tree Doctrine. That doctrine, which builds upon the information covered in this lesson, is covered in a separate lesson. It is highly recommended that you complete the separate lesson on the Fruit of the Poisonous Tree Doctrine shortly after you complete this lesson.

45 minutes
CRMPRO17

This exercise helps users understand the requirements of the Uniform Probate Code for the execution and revocation of testamentary instruments such as wills and codicils. It looks at the requirements for both attested written wills and holographic wills in the context of hypothetical estates. It explores the rights of pretermitted heirs. This lesson was revised to reflect the 2008 Amendments.


This exercise is based on the 1990 version of the U.P.C. with amendments through 1998.

1.5 hours
WT06

This lesson focuses on the presidential version of executive privilege. The lesson examines the justifications for the privilege, the requirements for its invocation, and judicial handling of that privilege. The lesson is intended for students who have studied this privilege in class, and who wish to further refine their understanding of the topic.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM25

This lesson explores the circumstances under which and reasons why courts will dispense with the requirement for a search warrant. Students should have a general familiarity with the Fourth Amendment. Although no specific advance reading is required, it would probably be best to have reviewed the CALI search warrant lessons first.

30 minutes
CRMPRO19

This exercise applies hypotheticals to situations involving expert witnesses. Analysis relies primarily on the Federal Rules of Evidence. Expert testimony in both civil and criminal contexts is covered, as the exercise consists of two trials: the first is a civil case, the second a criminal prosecution. The challenge of understanding expert opinion law is addressed through a series of problems which raise issues of qualifying experts to give opinions, the proper bases for expert opinion, admissibility of fee information, cross-examination of experts, opinions on questions of law, and other applications.

45 minutes
EVD05

The goal of this lesson is to take the user systematically through UCC Article 2. The lesson accomplishes this goal by having the user study a contract for the sale of goods. The concepts of Article 2 are thereby seen in the practical setting in which they are applied. Conversely, study of the contract reveals the source of each of the included provisions in the law. The user becomes familiar with the default rules and how those rules might be changed on behalf of a client. The user finishes with knowledge of the Code and how the Code may be applied in practice when drafting a contract.

3 hours
CON10

This lesson covers the role of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in enforcing the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR), known formally as Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR). Title 14 CFR has numerous parts that are organized by category of operation; that is, categories include: pilots and instructors, aircraft operators, aircraft manufacturers, and space transportation.

1 hour
AVA02

This lesson explores the application of the fair use doctrine, a defense to copyright infringement, in the special context of parody, based on the guidance provided by the Supreme Court in Campbell v. Acuff Rose Music, 510 U.S. 569 (1994). The lesson builds on the foundation established in CALI Lesson CPY08, Fundamentals of Fair Use, using a series of hypotheticals and a final essay.

30 minutes plus 15-minute essay
CPY12

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is not normally associated with aviation jurisdiction other than perhaps the issuance of radiotelephone station/operator licenses. However, the FCC is an independent Federal Agency which has been entitled by Congress to regulate and enforce a broad range of aviation matters. This lesson was created as a primer for the aviation law student or a refresher for the legal professional working in the aviation field. At the completion of this lesson the student should be knowledgeable of the scope and authority of FCC jurisdiction in aviation matters.

(Any interpretations or opinions presented in this lesson represent those of the author alone)

45 minutes
AVA03

This exercise is the counterpart of The Definition of Hearsay and the Federal Rules, which covers the definition of hearsay under Federal Rules of Evidence 801(a)-(c). The new exercise includes graphic reviews of each subsection of 801(d), and graphic illustrations of multiple hearsay, as well as interactive flowcharts for the subsections of 801(d). The program lends itself to use by students who either (i) want a relatively quick-review, with detailed work limited to those issues they find troublesome or (ii) want to review each relevant section of the rules in some detail. Those who wish to use the exercise to check their knowledge, and review only troublesome sections in detail, should follow the relevant strategies outlined in the READ ME section of the exercise. Students who wish to review 801(d) or multiple hearsay (Rule 805) in detail, will find a series of problems on each subsection of 801(d) and on 805, and review questions.

25 to 90 minutes, depending on the individual student's approach to the exercise.
EVD15

This lesson explores section 2 of the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1052, which prohibits certain types of trademarks from being registered on the Principal Register of the PTO, regardless of whether those marks are protectible under state law or under section 43 of the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1125.

45 minutes
TM15

This lesson reviews an attorney's responsibilities when setting, sharing and collecting fees. By the end of the lesson, students should be able to identify how much, by what method, and under what circumstances they can charge fees from clients, share fees with others, and take actions to collect fees.

30-45 minutes
PR13

This lesson reviews the basic components of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). It works best as a review of materials covered in a Hazardous Waste or Toxic Torts class, but it can also serve as an introduction to the statute.

45 minutes
ENV20

In this lesson, you will learn about the International Court of Justice, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. After an introduction to the Court, you'll learn about some of the print reporters of the Court's decisions and online sources for these opinions. Finally, there will be a discussion of print and online digests of the Court's decisions.

20 minutes
LR66

This lesson discusses the requirement that a work be "fixed in a tangible medium of expression" as a condition to obtaining copyright protection. Although it assumes a basic familiarity with copyright law and terminology, it is designed to stand alone. It can, therefore, be used either as an introduction to the fixation requirement or as a review of those concepts after a class discussion.

NOTE: This lesson is intended as an overview of this topic; it does not cover all the details related to live performances or the recently decided cases declaring unconstitutional sec. 1101.

45 minutes, plus 3 essays (approx. 15 minutes each)
CPY01

This lesson explores how trademark law deals with two specific categories of marks: foreign (non-English) words and people's names. It addresses their ability to function as marks as well as how they should be assessed when determining infringement. The lesson assumes a working familiarity with the "distinctiveness" requirement, the fair use doctrine, and the likelihood of confusion test for infringement. The lesson can be used to (1) provide an overview of one or both of these specialized areas of trademark law or (2) as a means to confirm understanding of the core principles after a class on the subject.

50 minutes
TM20

This lesson introduces you to the so-called "formal" process for making administrative rules and regulations. Under the federal Administrative Procedure Act, there are two separate and distinct processes for making rules: the "informal" process and the "formal" process. In a prior lesson, we examined the informal process. This lesson examines the formal process in greater detail. The lesson is designed for students who have studied these issues in class and who wish to refine their knowledge and understanding of the issues.

45 minutes
ADM10

This lesson deals with the formation of contracts under Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code (excluding 2-207 issues). At common law, a contract is formed often by the showing of mutual assent plus a consideration. The rule is reversed under the Uniform Commercial Code, however. Under UCC 2-204, a contract can be formed in any manner sufficient to show agreement, even if the parties leave open terms. This lesson will explore the effect of the difference in formation between common law and Article 2. You can work this lesson as an introduction to the formation of contracts under the UCC or as a review. The material in this lesson may be a more in-depth study of Article 2 than some first year contracts courses require. However, prior to working this lesson, you should have an understanding of the common law on offer, acceptance and mutual assent.

1 hour
CON65

This exercise covers these four, most commonly used, specific exceptions to the Hearsay rule: 1) Present sense impressions; 2) Excited utterances; 3) State of Mind; and 4) Business records. The student will be applying these four exceptions in the context of scenarios presenting hypotheticals. The student's goal in this lesson is to work with the four exceptions, to gain a basic understanding of them with a focus on those fundamentals and problem areas identified in the FRE's Advisory Committee's Notes, recent judicial decisions, and legal commentators. The student will identify, examine, and explore specific problem areas within each exception.

45 minutes, assuming prior basic understanding of the hearsay rule and the exceptions.
EVD14

This lesson is designed to introduce students to the Fourth Amendment prohibition against "unreasonable searches and seizures." The goal is to provide students with an overview of the history of the Fourth Amendment, as well as an introduction to the warrant requirement and the concept of warrantless searches. The lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and wish to refine their knowledge.

40 minutes
CRMPRO01

This exercise is intended for students who have studied this issue in class, and wish to refine and apply what they have learned. It includes several essay questions, along with their model answers.

45 minutes
REM16

This lesson focuses primarily on the federal Freedom of Information Act. The lesson begins with an overview on the origins of the Act and its basic structure. The lesson then examines threshold questions that a user of the Freedom of Information Act must consider, and key questions for analysis and application. This lesson examines which agencies are subject to the Freedom of Information Act, whether the document sought is a "record" under the Act, and finally, are any exemptions applicable.

50 minutes
ADM29

This lesson will cover the Fruit of the Poisonous Tree Doctrine, its application, and its three exceptions. The Fruit of the Poisonous Tree Doctrine lesson builds upon information covered in the Exclusionary Rule lesson. Although you may complete the lessons in any order, it is highly recommended that you complete the separate lesson on the Exclusionary Rule before you complete this lesson.

45 minutes
CRMPRO26

This lesson offers an introduction to the doctrine of functionality, which operates as a defense prohibiting anyone from claiming an exclusive right in functional shapes, elements, or aspects of a product or product packaging. The protectability or registrability of a trademark depends on a factual determination of a design's functionality. The functionality doctrine attempts to weigh the public and private interest in copying design features against a trademark owner's inherently anticompetitive objective to avoid consumer confusion. After completing this lesson, you should be able to analyze when the interest in avoiding confusion will outweigh the interest of free competition and vice versa.

35 minutes
TM05

This lesson serves as background and foundation for other lessons on damages for harms to personal property. It deals with general principles and basic measures of damages recoverable for harms to personal property. The lessons on harms to possessory interests, harms to integrity interests and harms to the interest in use and enjoyment of personal property all will delve more deeply into the intricacies of damages law in this area.

Students will first be introduced to the interests of owners of personal property that are compensated in the law of damages. Then, in problems which raise some fundamental issues, they will be presented with the basic measures of damages. Later, some alternatives to the basic measures will be briefly explored, and students will be introduced to the "Rule of Certainty" in the proof of damages. The substantive causes of action available for recovering damages for harms to personal property are ignored in this lesson.

In addition to working in this lesson, the student should also work in the lesson on General Concepts of Damages in Torts to get a basic grounding in the area of torts damages.

1.5 hours
TRT20

Because copyright creates ownership rights in original expression, the private property interests of copyright owners sometimes come into conflict with the public's interest in disseminating knowledge, expressing ideas, or simply enjoying, sharing, and building upon the protected expression. This lesson introduces the basic concept of fair use in copyright law, and offers numerous examples to test the student's ability to apply the balancing test of 17 U.S.C. § 107.

45 minutes
CPY08

The General Aviation Revitalization Act of 1994 (GARA) has reshaped the landscape of tort law in American, non-commercial aviation. This lesson provides an overview of the statute of repose under GARA as well as some of the defining case law and limitations of the Act.

Please note that the opinions and views expressed in this lesson are solely those of the author.

50-60 minutes
AVA04

This program takes the student through the basics of a particular area of trademark law — the geographic scope of trademark protection. It includes the general common law principles as enunciated in early Supreme Court cases (Hanover, Rectanus) as well as zone of natural expansion. The program also contains complete coverage of Lanham Act principles including constructive notice, constructive use, section 33 and the limited area defense, concurrent use, and the need for confusion (Dawn Donut). The lesson uses a generally interactive format; the student frequently must answer questions requiring the use of relevant statutory language (which is included in the program) as well as major cases. Graphics, such as maps, pictures and time lines are used throughout the lesson to illustrate and enhance the understanding of the issues presented. This program can be used to teach the basic principles, and can provide a comprehensive review of the area. It is not tied to any particular book.

1 hour
IP02

Over the last century, the administrative bureaucracy has grown dramatically in size and influence. In this lesson, we examine some of the reasons for that growth. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and who wish to refine and enhance their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM23

A discussion of the formation of a partnership and how to master related sections of UPA and RUPA. This topic is also discussed in Prof. Cohen's CALI lesson Are You My Partner? Is This a Partnership?

Download:
7:52 minutes
BA08P

This lesson is an introduction to health law with a concentration on health care law and is intended for use by upper level students interested in researching health law and policy. However, this lesson may be utilized by any researcher interested in brushing up on their legal research skills. The goal of this lesson is to (1) provide an understanding of the regulatory scheme of health care institutions at both the state and federal level; and (2) give a critical overview of the features of analytical materials (secondary sources) that you may utilize for more in-depth understanding.

45 minutes
LR134

Note: This lesson uses Flash and is unable to be viewed on a device that does not have the Flash player installed. Scoring for this lesson is also unavailable at this time.

This lesson presents a schematic flowchart or algorithm illustrating one approach to determining whether due process applies to a particular agency hearing and, if it does, how one determines what procedures are required and the time at which they must be made available. It references several of the basic Supreme Court cases (Goldberg, Roth, Perry, Goss, Mathews, etc.).

45 minutes
ADM07

This exercise is designed to introduce students to the broad range of exceptions available under the Federal Rules of Evidence. Using hypothetical fact situations, students are asked to assume the role of the judge and to rule on the applicability of Federal Rules of Evidence 803 and 804. The exercise requires students to know the proper application of each exception and to also understand the reason underlying each exception to the federal rules. Each section covers a separate sub-rule of either F.R.E. 803 or 804. Thus, the lesson is suitable as a review for students who have completed their study, or to reinforce classroom coverage of the rules throughout the semester.

3 hours
EVD13

This lesson deals with the definition of hearsay under the Federal Rules of Evidence. It is a self-contained exercise that requires no prior knowledge or reference to outside material. It can be used as preparation before the topic of hearsay has been reached in the classroom, or as review after hearsay has been covered in class.

The exercise contains expository text followed by questions and responses. Its topics include statements offered as circumstantial evidence of the declarant’s state of mind, utterances offered as legally operative language, and other utterances that are not hearsay under the definition set forth in Fed. R. Evid. 801 (c). The exercise uses a variety of examples to illustrate the concept of hearsay as a statement offered to prove its truth.

The questions and text used in this exercise are different from those in the exercise entitled The Concept of Hearsay, so both exercises can be used by the same student without duplication. If both exercises are used, the author recommends that the present exercise (Hearsay from Square One) be used first.

45 minutes
EVD08

This exercise is based on a simulated trial in which the user is asked to rule on hearsay objections and to give reasons for the rulings. The exercise was composed under a grant from the Federal Judicial Center, which has used it, along with the Character Evidence exercise, as part of its training program for incoming federal judges. It is suitable for students who have completed their study of the hearsay rule and who know something about the rules relating to impeachment and crossexaminations.

1 hour
EVD02

This lesson provides a basic history of equitable remedies. The student need not have read any particular materials or taken any particular law school courses in order to complete the tutorial. It can be used to provide background in courses where equity is especially relevant or to review the history of equity for use in a remedies course. The lesson will not examine doctrines of substantive equity (other than to note their existence) nor will the lesson explore the prerequisites for obtaining, defending against, or enforcing equitable remedies.

30-45 minutes
REM04

This lesson will cover how to research the constitutions of countries besides the United States.

1 hour
LR116

In this lesson, we examine the hybrid rulemaking process. In other words, we examine rules that are not created through the formal rulemaking process (as that process is defined in the federal Administrative Procedure Act (APA)), or by a strictly informal process (again, as defined by the APA), but by a process that is somewhere between formal and informal processes. The lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and who wish to further refine their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM21

This lesson examines identification procedures in criminal cases through a short exploration of problems that can arise in making an identification, a primer on basic constitutional rules and the problem of suggestiveness, and a simple criminal case in which you act as an investigator and see the legal consequences of choosing different identification procedures. A concluding essay question gives you a chance to test your knowledge.

90 minutes
CRMPRO14

This exercise begins with a transcript of the direct examination of a government witness in a criminal action. The direct examination will be followed by a crossexamination, and the student is asked to rule on objections to impeachment questions by the crossexaminer. The student will be asked “remedial questions” after the completion of the first phase of this exercise if certain questions are erroneously answered. The lesson focuses on permissible and impermissible impeachment concepts under the Federal Rules of Evidence. The exercise was composed under a grant from the Federal Judicial Center as part of its training program for incoming federal judges.

1 hour
EVD07

This lesson is intended for students who have studied equity and, in particular, in personam remedies in class, and who wish to obtain a further and deeper understanding of the topic.

45 minutes
REM31

This lesson teaches about the concept of incontestability: what it is, and what benefits it confers on trademark owners. This lesson can be used either for teaching the subject or for review.

30 minutes
TM08

[Note from CALI: Effective March 24, 2014, CALI is working with the lesson author to revise several questions in this lesson to reflect changes in the law since the lesson was written.]

This lesson examines the "informal" rulemaking process.. Under the Administrative Procedure Act, this type of rulemaking is also called "notice and comment" rulemaking. In this lesson, we examine the procedural steps that an administrative agency must follow in order to create a valid "informal" rule. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and wish to further refine their knowledge.

45 minutes
ADM11

This lesson covers one type of patent infringement involving activity beyond the borders of the United States. In particular, what constitutes infringement under 271(f)(1) and (f)(2) is addressed, including the US Supreme Court decision, AT&T v. Microsoft.

Students may use this lesson to review material already covered in a course, or to learn this material on their own. Students should at least have prior knowledge and understanding of direct and indirect infringement under 271(a)-(c).

35 minutes
PAT03

This lesson concerns the initial ownership of trademarks. It does not address the assignment or licensing of trademarks, nor the transfer of trademark registrations. This lesson is intended as a review of material covered in the trademark law course.

40 minutes
TM17

This lesson focuses on injunctions against litigation. This issue arises in several different contexts, including intra-jurisdictional state court injunctions, state court injunctions against litigation in other states, state court injunctions against federal litigation, and federal court injunctions against state litigation. The lesson is intended for students who have studied these topics in class and wish to refine and enhance their knowledge.

45 minutes
REM35

This Lessonette® exercise focuses on issues relating to injunctions against speech. It is designed for students who have studied these issues in class, and who have a strong working knowledge of the material, but who wish to further refine and develop their understanding. This Lessonette exercise has 12 main questions (and a number of subparts).

1 hour
REM32

This is the second Lessonette® exercise involving injunctions against speech. The first Lessonette exercise focused on various aspects of injunctions against speech including injunctions against defamation, obscenity and related to national security. In this Lessonette exercise, we focus on some issues that arise in relation to injunctions against civil rights demonstrations including abortion and civil rights protests. Much of the law that governs these issues is basic constitutional law.

This Lessonette exercise is intended for students who have studied the material in class, and are seeking to review, test and refine their knowledge. It is NOT an introductory Lessonette exercise and is NOT for students who have not studied the material.

45 minutes
REM33

This is the third in a series of lessons on injunctions against speech. This lesson focuses on injunctions against invasions of privacy. The lesson is intended for students who have studied this material in class and who seek to refine their knowledge.

45 minutes
REM34

This lesson focues on problems related to injunctions against crimes and against criminal prosecutions. The lesson is intended for students who have studied the topic in class and seek to expand and refine their knowledge of the topic.

45 minutes
REM36

This lesson introduces you to the rules governing the award of injunctive relief in actions for trademark infringement. In trademark infringement cases, the harm or loss suffered by a plaintiff is often difficult to prove because of the lack of evidence of a causal connection between the harm and the defendant's wrongful conduct. To account for this evidentiary shortfall, the judicial preference in awarding relief in trademark infringement cases is injunctive relief. Despite this judicial preference, monetary remedies remain available for trademark infringement. For a more detailed analysis of monetary remedies for trademark infringement, refer to lesson "Recovery of Damages for Trademark Infringement."

35 minutes
TM23

This Lessonette® exercise is one of a series on the topic of "Compensatory Damages." This particular Lessonette interactive tutorial explores the differences among each of the three main types of legally-protected "interests" most commonly involved in any damages case: the expectation interest, the reliance interest, and the restitution interest. It is designed as an "Introduction" to the basic distinctions among each of these different interests, as well as a practical guide to determining when one interest should be asserted instead of another. For beginning law students, this Lessonette interactive tutorial should not be attempted until the "Basic Terminologies in Compensatory Damages" Lessonette has been completed. Students who have already completed foundational courses in "Contracts" may wish to use this Lessonette exercise as a review of these same basic "Damages" terminologies, or to better understand more complex issues presented by other courses in which substantive Damages issues or remedies issues may be presented. For comparative purposes designed to illustrate the various distinctions among each of these three different types of legally-protected damages "interests," this Lessonette exercise focuses primarily upon contract damage examples.

45 minutes
REM14

This lesson discusses 49 U.S.C. sec. 46504, providing for civil and criminal penalties for passengers who intimidate pilots or flight attendants.

45 minutes
AVA05

This is an introduction to researching the law relating to inter-governmental and non-governmental agencies. IGOs and NGOs have significant input into international law and finding their resources can be integral to research in international law.

40 minutes
LR80

International environmental law covers many subjects. For the most part, however, international agreements on environmental subjects, such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES) must be implemented through the domestic law of signatory countries. For example, the United States implements CITES through the federal Endangered Species Act.

This lesson provides an introduction both to CITES and to the Endangered Species Act's implementation of that Convention. No prior knowledge of CITES is required; however, this lesson assumes that you are familiar with the ordinary workings of the Endangered Species Act. If you are not familiar with that statute, you may want to complete the CALI lesson entitled "ESA Basics" before continuing with this lesson.

In addition, if you are completely unfamiliar with principles of international law, you may want to complete the CALI lesson entitled "Introduction to International Law for Environmental Law Students" before continuing with this lesson.

30 to 45 minutes
ENV14

This program explores the Uniform Probate Code rules for interpreting wills where devisees die before the testator or there are changes in the nature or extent of the estate property. Survival, lapse and antilapse and statements of contrary intent are explored at some length along with ademption, increase and advancements of bequests.

1.5 hours
WT04

This exercise introduces users to the Uniform Probate Code scheme of intestate succession. It explores the application of the Code (as amended in 2008) to various hypothetical situations and gives feedback to the student utilizing the applicable Code provisions. The program examines the inheritance rights of descendants, ancestors and collateral heirs and looks to subsidiary problems of inheritance such as the rights of posthumous heirs, adopted heirs, illegitimate children, and the slayer of the decedent. The requirement of survivorship is also explored.


This exercise is based on the 2008 amendments to the U.P.C.

1.5 hours
WT05

This exercise begins with some general background questions to help students place administrative agencies within the greater Constitutional scheme. These questions also address the various powers agencies wield, and the ways they are created. Then the exercise examines several print and online directory sources that offer specific details on individual agencies; it goes on to briefly discuss procedural rules, policy statements, and the process of promulgating regulations. The exercise concludes with review questions.

30-45 minutes
LWR33

This lesson presents the basics of administrative law for students taking Environmental Law or Natural Resources Law who have not taken Administrative Law.

30 minutes
ENV15

This lesson introduces the student to agency relationships and explores the following questions: Why are agency relationships formed? Who are the parties to an agency relationship? What elements are required to form an agency relationship? and What are the consequences of forming an agency relationship?

50-60 minutes
BA03

This lesson serves as an introduction to the most common types of aviation insurance coverage as governed by United States domestic law, federal law, and international agreements, along with a brief history to the overall subject matter.  The purpose of the lesson is to compare and contrast the various types of insurance coverage. General aviation circumstances are emphasized in this lesson, but attention to common carrier aviation insurance is presented as well. Specific attention will be given to the various international agreements and domestic policies that serve as legal bases necessitating different types of coverage.

45-60 minutes
AVA10

This lesson is an introduction to the basic concept of depreciation. It discusses depreciation as an expense, how to determine the cost, or basis, of an asset, and the balance sheet treatment of depreciable assets. It does not discuss the different methods of depreciation. That is dealt with in another lesson, Methods of Depreciation.

30 minutes
ACCT05

This lesson gives a brief introduction to some of the basic concepts in foreign legal research, such as foreign legal systems, availability of materials, and research strategies.

30 minutes
LWR32

This is an introductory lesson for international human rights law and research. The lesson contains four parts. Part I is designed to provide the user with a basic understanding of the development of human rights. Part II introduces the user to the United Nations and regional human rights structures. A researcher must be aware of the structure of the complaint and enforcement systems in order to locate and understand the significance of human rights materials. As a result, a significant amount of time is devoted to this section. Part III contains a discussion of resources available to assist users developing a contextual understanding of human rights issues. The lesson concludes with an overview of resources available for substantive human rights research.

Although humanitarian law or the law of armed conflict is occasionally discussed as a branch of human rights law, this topic is beyond the scope of this introductory lesson. Additionally, this lesson is not intended to cover international criminal law research regarding violations of human rights norms, such as the prohibition on genocide.

75 minutes
LR76

This Lessonette® interactive tutorial will introduce American environmental law students to general principles of international law, with some examples of how such principles create and influence international environmental law.

30 minutes
ENV13

This series of three tutorials leads students through nine problems involving the taxation of partners and partnerships. The tutorials will be most useful when students have prepared the problems before turning on the computer. After having completed the tutorials, students should have a good understanding of the basic tax rules for partnerships.

The first tutorial involves the formation, operation, and liquidation of a partnership. The student learns how the various Code provisions interrelate, and becomes familiar with I.R.C, §704(c)(1)(A). The second tutorial deals with sale of a partnership interest. The third tutorial involves the tax consequences when a partnership incurs a liability and considers the impact of the passive loss rules.

Each tutorial asks a series of questions in connection with the problems presented in the printed handout material that accompanies this exercise. The tutorial provides suggestions or hints to a student who has given a wrong answer and makes her try again. It also explains the significance of a correct answer. At various times a separate screen summarizes the results or presents important observations. After the fourth wrong answer to any question, the computer always provides the correct answer. To prevent a student from completing the tutorial by guessing blindly and letting the computer supply all the right answers, the program terminates after the computer has had to provide the right answer for three consecutive questions.

5 hours
TAX01

This lesson will provide students with an introduction to the federal regulation of proxy solicitation. The lesson begins with a short description of the process of voting by proxy. It continues with an overview of the regulatory scheme, including a detailed analysis of section 14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and an introduction to Regulation 14A (the Proxy Rules and Sched. 14A), promulgated thereunder by the SEC. It is recommended that students bring a print copy of the Proxy Rules with them to use in conjunction with this lesson.

1 hour
CORP26

The purpose of this lesson is to serve as an introduction to the rapidly growing area of trade dress law. Several new developments have occurred in this area of the law just in the past five years. Most of these developments deal with the correct balance between protecting the freedom of competitors to copy packaging or design features on the one hand and protecting the appearance or physical features of a product when these packaging or design features operate as indications of source on the other. This lesson will go through the definition of trade dress, review protection requirements for registered trade dress, and conclude with protection requirements for unregistered trade dress.

45 minutes
TM09

This lesson is an introduction to patent issues under TRIPS, an important international agreement that impacts the national patent laws of all member countries of the World Trade Organization. This includes over 170 countries, including not only industrialized countries, but all developing and least developed countries. Because TRIPS imposes restrictions on national law in all countries, understanding TRIPS is important to understanding what changes to patent law is possible - in the United States and beyond. Some familiarity of US patent law is required, but a full patent law course is certainly not necessary.

45 minutes
PAT07

This lesson discusses the accounting treatment of inventory: how to value inventory on the balance sheet, inventory as an expense (the cost of goods sold), and different methods of determining the cost of goods sold. It does not cover the lower-of-cost-or-market rule, which is dealt with in a separate lesson.

45 minutes
ACCT07

This lesson discusses the lower-of-cost-or-market rule that sometimes requires the book value of inventory to be reduced to its market value. Before taking this lesson, you should already be familiar with the basic accounting rules that govern inventory. Another lesson, Inventory and the Cost of Goods Sold, covers those basic concepts.

25 minutes
ACCT08

This Lessonette® interactive exercise is intended for students who have studied irreparable injury in class, and want to expand and refine their knowledge.

45 minutes
REM08

This is one of a series of lessons dealing with the issuance of shares by a corporation. Before beginning this lesson, you should have completed the lesson "Types of Securities" or have an understanding of notes, bonds and debentures, common and preferred stock, and rights and warrants. This lesson focuses on basic concepts and terminology and addresses issues contained in what are called the legal capital provisions of corporate codes. You will encounter equity capitalization, par value, capital, capital surplus and earned surplus accounts in a balance sheet.

55 minutes
CORP28

This is the third part of five related lessons concerning the issuance of securities by a corporation. The first lesson, Types of Securities, deals with equity and debt securities. The second lesson, Issuance of Shares Part I, deals with corporate law legal capital provisions, including the concept of par, applicable to the issuance of equity securities (shares of stock). This, the third lesson, Issuance of Shares Part IIA, deals with the proper type of consideration used to pay for equity securities. The fourth lesson, Issuance of Shares Part IIB, deals with the proper amount of consideration used to pay for equity securities. The fifth lesson, Issuance of Shares Part III, deals with all other issues related to the issuance of equity securities, and also deals with the issues of preemptive rights. These five lessons should be completed in sequence. Students should not begin this lesson until the previous lessons have been completed.

45 minutes
CORP30

This is the fourth part of five related lessons concerning the issuance of securities by a corporation. These lessons should be completed in sequence.l The first lesson, Types of Securities, deals with equity and debt securities. The second lesson, Issuance of Shares Part I, deals with corporate law legal capital provisions, including the concept of par, applicable to the issuance of equity securities (shares of stock). The third lesson, Issuance of Shares Part IIA, deals with the proper type of consideration used to pay for equity securities. This lesson, Issuance of Shares Part IIB, deals with the amount of consideration used to pay for equity securities. The fifth and final lesson, Issuance of Shares Part III, deals with all other issues related to the issuance of equity securities, and also deals with the issue of preemptive rights. Students should not complete this lesson before completing the previous lessons.

45 minutes
CORP20

This lesson is the FINAL lesson in a FIVE part series dealing with the ways a corporation is financed, that is, the ways in which a company raises money to pay for its ongoing operations. BEFORE beginning this lesson, you should have completed ALL of the previous lessons and have mastered the concepts introduced in each of the previous lessons. This lesson builds on those earlier lessons. The FIRST lesson in the series is called Types of Securities, Corp27L. It describes the characteristics of debt and equity securities and introduces the student to the reasons a company might use both debt and equity to finance a corporation. The last four lessons deal with the legal rules that apply to raising money by issuing shares of stock in the company. The SECOND lesson in the series, Issuance of Shares Part I, Corp 28L, covers the concepts of equity capitalization, par value, the requirements and use of stated capital, capital surplus, and earned surplus, and the definition of treasury shares. The THIRD lesson, Issuance of Shares Part IIA, Corp30L, discusses what it means for stock to be designated as fully paid and validly issued and the related requirement that shares of stock be paid for with the proper TYPE of consideration. The FOURTH lesson, Issuance of Shares Part IIB, Corp34L, continues the discussion of fully paid and validly issued stock and the related requirement that the stock be paid for with the proper AMOUNT of consideration. The lesson also addresses the consequences of failing to meet these requirements. This FINAL lesson, Issuance of Shares Part III, Corp37, deals with the mechanics of issuing equity securities and the related concept of preemptive rights.

45 minutes
CORP37

The goal of this program is to teach a substantial amount of Article 2 through the study of a single case. This exercise begins with a warranty case, ITT v. LTX. At any point in the program, however, you are free to explore any other part of the program. You may, for example, explore the issues in the case, which cover a large part of Article 2 and common law contracts. You can read what each opinion in the case says about the issue, explore treatises, go to the language of the UCC, or hear what the attorneys involved in the case have to say. Cap off your experience by taking a quiz on the issue which is similar to traditional CALI lessons.

Alternatively, you can learn more about the case by exploring such materials as the complaint, the pre-trial stipulations, and the trial testimony. Read treatises on case analysis or explore the elements of a claim for breach of contract and how the elements were proven in this case. The program contains such multimedia aspects as a videotape introduced in evidence at the trial, photographs, and statements by the attorneys.

2-2.5 hours
SAL01

This lesson explores the concept of a "joint work" in copyright law, including the legal standards which determine whether a work has been jointly authored as well as the legal consequences that attach to this characterization.

35 minutes plus 20 minute essay
CPY02

This lesson addresses two general questions covered in a typical administrative law course: (1) under what circumstances does the federal Administrative Procedure Act authorize judicial review of claims that an agency's inaction violates the Administrative Procedure Act; and (2) what is the scope of judicial review of such claims?

45 minutes
ADM28

This lesson discusses judicial review of director's conflicting interest transactions under subchapter F of chapter 8 of the revised Model Business Corporation Act. The definition of "director's conflicting interest transaction" is not discussed; that is dealt with in a companion lesson, What is a Director's Conflicting Interest Transaction? The two lessons may be done in either order.

The lesson begins with a thorough discussion of the operative provision of subchapter F, section 8.61. It then discusses the requirements for directors' action under section 8.62 and shareholders' action under section 8.63. It also briefly touches on fairness review.

75 minutes
CORP09

In this lesson, we explore issues relating to judicial review of an agency's issuance of a "legislative" rule -- a rule issued as a result of the federal Administrative Procedure Act's rulemaking procedures. After briefly noting the differences between so-called "formal" and "informal" rulemaking procedures, the lesson examines the standards of review applicable to each type of procedure. Thus, the lesson focuses on the "substantial evidence" test, the "arbitrary and capricious" test, and the requirement of an adequate explanation. The lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and who wish to refine and expand their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM13

This lesson covers the "cybersquatting" provisions of the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. sec. 1125(d), which grant a cause of action to trademark owners against persons who, with a bad faith intent to profit, register, traffic in, or use domain names that infringe the rights of those trademark owners.

30 minutes
TM03

Through a simulated counseling session with a prospective law student, this lesson reviews the types of admission to practice, and the procedures and substantive standards for admission to practice. The lesson can be used as preparation, review or substitution for class coverage of this topic.

1 hour
PR10

This exercise combines text and branching questions to give students an understanding of the main topics in Article 2A of the UCC. In a UCC survey course it can be used in place of in-class coverage of Article 2A. In courses in which Article 2A is covered in depth, it provides review and reinforcement of important concepts. Coverage includes the scope of Article 2A, contract formation, consumer leases, finance leases, acceptance and rejection, warranties, disclaimers, assignments, priorities, and remedies.

3 hours
CT04

This lesson discusses how lawyers should respond to audit inquiry letters, which ask lawyers to provide information concerning legal matters to a client's auditors. The lesson focuses on the American Bar Association's Statement of Policy Regarding Lawyer's Responses to Auditors' Requests for Information. No knowledge of accounting is necessary to complete this lesson.

30 minutes
ACCT09

A letter of credit is a document that operates as a payment method whereby parties doing business can enhance the likelihood of payment (typically for goods) through obtaining a form of payment guaranty from a financial institution. In this lesson we will look at the rules governing letters of credit, namely UCC Article 5 and the Uniform Customs and Practices 600. In particular, we will look at how these rules help in the resolution of pre and post honor disputes concerning letters of credit.

45 minutes
NP14

A letter of credit is a document that operates as a payment method whereby parties doing business can enhance the likelihood of payment (typically for goods) through obtaining a form of payment guaranty from a financial institution. The goal of this lesson is to introduce the basic documents involved in a letter of credit transaction by studying one particular transaction. We will look at the regulations governing letters of credit, namely UCC Article 5 and the Uniform Customs and Practices 600. In particular, we will look at the issuance of the letter of credit in our case and develop an understanding of the documents and parties involved in these transactions.

45 minutes
NP13

Ordinarily, when an agent acts on behalf of a principal the legal rights of the principal are affected, but the agent is not personally liable to third persons with whom he or she has dealt. This lesson looks at those somewhat unusual situations where the agent may be personally liable to third persons.

45 minutes
BA02

One of the difficult common law issues in defamation was the distinction between libel and slander. This lesson explains the differences between the two types of defamatory statements. Material is provided on the damage requirements of both. This lesson is part of a series about defamation. One should review the lesson on Basic Issues in Defamation and Privileges before working with this exercise. After finishing this one, the exercise on Constitutional Issues in Defamation should be covered.

30 minutes
TRT30

Likelihood of confusion is a core concept in trademark law. This lesson is designed to teach the basics of confusion, as well as some more advanced aspects of the topic. It requires students to work through the multifactor analysis used by courts with specific problems. It also includes a discussion of the different forms of confusion.

45 minutes (not including 30 minute essay)
TM22

This lesson follows the Distribution Right lesson, CPY16. This lesson can best be characterized as the Limitation on the Distribution Right. Colloquially referred to as the First Sale Doctrine, 17 U.S.C. section 109 provides that the copyright owner's exclusive right of distribution and consent to that distribution effects the transfer of the rights in that copy or phonorecord, so long as the the transfer was of a lawful copy or phonorecord embodying the copyrighted work.

This lesson will explore the rationale for the First Sale Doctrine, the elements that must be proved in order to use the Doctrine as a defense against a claim of infringement, and the limitations that are placed on the application of the defense. Two of the limitations on the application of the defense include recognition of copyright in restored works and the prohibition against the rental of a particular sound recording phonorecord or a particular copy of a computer program. The goal of this lesson is to provide a general introduction to the First Sale Doctrine as a defense to an alleged violation of the the exclusive right of distribution as opposed to any other violation of the copyright owner's exclusive rights.

45 minutes
CPY20

This lesson defines and applies the concept of literal infringement in patent law. It also examines the process through which the patentee establishes a prima facie case of literal infringement.

40 minutes
PAT11

This lesson introduces the student to the management and financial rights of partners of an ongoing partnership. Other lessons cover the information and indemnification rights of partners and the rights of partners during the process of dissolving a partnership. Before starting this lesson, students should have completed the basic lessons on partnership formation.

50 minutes
BA06

This is an introduction to some of the legal aspects of the husband-wife relationship, including property and support obligations along with a number of issues involving the marital status.

30 minutes
FAM23

This lesson addresses the formal and substantive regulations imposed on the right to marry. The lesson discusses the difference between annulment and divorce and compares void and voidable marriages. The putative spouse doctrine and the marriage presumption are also covered. This lesson assumes prior coverage of this material in class and is designed to help you review theses concepts. If you want to study the constitutional aspects of substantive regulations of marriage in more depth, see the CALI lessons, Constitutional Aspects of Family Law and Same Sex Relationships. The lesson contains 21 questions and should take 30-45 minutes to complete.

30-45 minutes
FAM18

This lesson examines the creation of the master/servant relationship in agency law and contrasts that relationship with the status of independent contractor. The lesson provides an opportunity to think about why the distinction is important and how to tell whether a given relationship rises to the level of being a master/servant relationship or is merely an independent contractor relationship.

50 minutes
BA04

This lesson examines the process of incorporation by allowing students to explore some typical articles of incorporation by clicking on hot spots. The lesson provides a guided tour through the various provisions of the articles of incorporation. The lesson also looks at what happens when the incorporation process is not carried out correctly.

45 minutes
CORP22

This lesson covers medical research, as opposed to health law research. This lesson will emphasize resources that are free of charge, although it should be noted that there are also many fee-based services that provide the full text of medical resources; among these is Westlaw's "Medical Litigator," unveiled in early 2007, which provides some access to medical information.

45 - 60 minutes
LR68

This lesson discusses the different methods of calculating depreciation expense. Students who take this lesson should already be familiar with the basic concept of depreciation. If you are not, you should first take the companion lesson, An Introduction to Depreciation.

30 minutes
ACCT06

This lesson reviews Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966), one of the most well known and important cases ever decided by the United States Supreme Court. The lesson reviews the reasoning and holding of Miranda and examines the issues of custody, interrogation, and waiver. A different lesson, Miranda II, explores issues relating to the assertions by a suspect of the rights provided by Miranda; the application of the exclusionary rule to violations of Miranda; and exceptions to and limits on the Miranda rule.

45 minutes
CRMPRO18

This lesson is the second lesson reviewing Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966). This lesson explores issues relating to the assertions by a suspect of the rights provided by Miranda--the right to silence and the right to an attorney prior to questioning; the application of the exclusionary rule to violations of Miranda; and exceptions to and limits on the Miranda rule.

Another lesson, Miranda I, reviews the reasoning and holding of Miranda; examines the issues of custody and interrogation--the two "triggers" set forth by the Court for when the protections become available to a suspect; and explores what constitutes a waiver of the protections of Miranda. Although the lessons can be completed in any order, it may be helpful to complete Miranda I before moving on to Miranda II.

75 minutes
CRMPRO25

This is an introduction to the black-letter rules of the Model Rules of Professional Conduct. It is a linear question-and-answer drill. Students are asked short questions and given immediate feedback. This drill is intended to serve as preparation for the level II exercise, Questions and Problems, described below. (This exercise is a new exercise that is completely different from the drill exercise offered in previous years. The earlier drill exercise has been revised and is being offered as the Questions and Problems exercise, below.)

This lesson was revised in accordance with the Model Rules of Conduct, as amended through August 2003.

70 minutes
PR02

This lesson presents students with hypothetical factual situations and asks whether certain conduct would violate the Code. The is a branching tutorial and includes follow-up questions, dialogue, and new questions based upon changes in the original hypotheticals. The Preliminary Drill exercise, above, is intended to serve as preparation for this exercise, though students could also prepare for it by reading the Model Rules and taking notes. Students should have a copy of the Model Rules of Professional Conduct with them when doing this lesson.

This lesson was revised in accordance with the Model Rules of Conduct, as amended through August 2003.

2 hours
PR06

This lesson can serve either as an introduction to modification or as a review that reinforces and tests your understanding of this subject. Before beginning the lesson, you should be familiar with the general law of alimony and child support. The CALI lessons on Alimony and Child Support can help.

This lesson is divided into two parts: Part I deals with modification of alimony; Part II deals with modification of child support. Each part begins by identifying basic rules on modification and then explores specific fact patterns that often trigger requests for modification.

30 minutes
FAM17

This lesson focuses on the problem of modifying injunctions. As we shall see, even though an injunction is labeled as "permanent," it is subject to modification or alteration. Indeed, some injunctions, even some far reaching ones, are not intended to last forever. In this lesson, we examine the standards and criteria by which courts decide whether to terminate or modify existing injunctions. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and wish to refine and enhance their knowledge.

45 minutes
REM37

This lesson is designed to introduce the student to the role of the mortgage note and the applicable law. This should be of interest to students studying real estate and to students studying negotiable instruments. If you are not already familiar with negotiable instruments, you should go through the CALI lesson entitled "What's a Negotiable Instrument" before trying this lesson. It will focus on the 1990 version of the UCC because that is the law in most states.

30 - 45 minutes
RE04

This lesson lays the foundation for the advanced study of mortgages and financing that is based on the security of mortgage, mortgage variants, and mortgage substitutes.

45 minutes
RE03

This is an advanced lesson that requires an understanding of the basics of negotiable instruments. Before doing this lesson you should at least know what a negotiable instrument is, the significance of it being a negotiable instrument, who can enforce a negotiable instrument, who is a holder in due course, and the benefits of being a holder in due course, subjects covered in other lessons.

30 - 45 minutes
NP11

This is the sixth in a series of lessons, by this author, covering the basics of negotiable instruments law. It explains the obligations that one incurs by becoming a party to a negotiable instrument, whether as a maker, drawer, indorser, or acceptor.

Note from CALI: As of April 2012, the other referenced lessons are still in progress.

1 hour
NP01

This lesson can be used to introduce you to the benefits of being a holder in due course or to reinforce your knowledge if you have already received an introduction elsewhere.

It is suggested that you complete the lesson, "What is a Negotiable Instrument" before doing this lesson.

45 minutes, as an introduction. 30 minutes as reinforcement and review
NP09

This lesson addresses two questions: (1) What is a negotiable instrument? (2) Why does it matter if something is a negotiable instrument? This lesson can be used to introduce you to the topic of negotiable instruments and to these two subjects. It can also be used to review and reinforce knowledge you have already acquired.

As an introduction: 1 hour; as a review: 1/2 hour
NP04

This lesson is designed to teach you how to figure out whether a person is a Holder in Due Course. It can be used as an introduction or for reinforcement. It would be best if you did the following lessons before this one: What is a Negotiable Instrument; Travel of a Negotiable Instrument; and The Cast of Characters in Negotiable Instruments.

As an introduction: 45 to 60 minutes; as a review: 30 minutes.
NP07

This lesson will teach you the sometimes confusing rules governing negotiation of instruments under Article 3 of the UCC. Among other things, you will learn what one needs to do to become a holder of an instrument, how instruments are negotiated, and what is necessary for an effective indorsement. If you are already familiar with this material, the lesson can be completed quickly, giving you a good pre-exam review and pointing out any weaknesses in your knowledge.

1 hour
NP02

This lesson addresses the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the first major federal environmental law. It is designed to reinforce your understanding of the basic structure and requirements of NEPA. The exercise consists of twenty multiple choice or true/false questions, and it is designed as a summary of NEPA. The exercise assumes that the user has knowledge of the basic structure and requirements of NEPA. The questions will illustrate the broad impact of NEPA praised by Senator Chaffee, as well as the limitations of the law identified by the Council on Environmental Quality. The NEPA statute, regulations, and scores of NEPA documents from EPA, the White House and other federal agencies are available on the Web, and the lesson links directly to those sites.

2-3 hours
ENV04

The New Ranch lesson is the successor to the Ranch lesson. As with the Ranch, the New Ranch lesson leads students through the steps necessary to perfecting a security interest under Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) in a multi-state contact situation. The exercise also assists students to understand many other provisions of Article 9, including those dealing with classification of collateral and those governing the place of filing within a particular state.

The New Ranch differs from the Ranch in that it deals with a completely revised version of Article 9, referred to in the lesson as "new Article 9." New Article 9 will be effective in most states on July 1, 2001. However, understanding new Article 9 requires understanding existing Article 9. Moreover, there will be some difficult transition issues the resolution of which will require understanding both existing and new Article 9. For these reasons, the New Ranch lesson explores the application of both existing and new Article 9 to the questions posed in the lesson.

As with the Ranch, the New Ranch is built around a basic fact situation that poses a problem for students to solve. Students are required to identify and explain the steps that must be taken to perfect a security interest in collateral located in one state, when the secured party or debtor are located in different states. Because students are pressed for reasons for as well as answers to questions posed, they learn not only what must be done but why. Various "branches" of the exercise lead students through "mini tutorials" on such sometimes difficult tasks as properly characterizing collateral for purposes of deciding what steps are required to perfect security interests in the collateral. By changing the facts along the way, the exercise seeks to test the degree to which students actually understand the conclusions they have reached. Because the exercise is set in the context of advising a client (actually a senior associate or partner), it provides a sense of "real world" activity that is often absent from the abstract learning experiences encountered in the classroom. The UCC sections needed to give the advice sought are provided in the exercise.

1 hour
CT03

This lesson covers emerging issues of assisted reproduction technologies. Most specifically, it explores issues of parental rights on both a constitutional and state level. Topics covered include artificial insemination, surrogacy, and the status of un-implanted pre-embryos when the parties disagree about implantation. It does not cover post-partum conception. The lesson includes the issue of lesbian partners when one provides the egg and the other is the gestational mother but it does not cover other issues of lesbian parenthood.

This lesson can be used for review or as background material for in depth class discussion.

1 hour
FAM14

This lesson covers the availability of non-economic damages; evidentiary issues in proving these damages; and issues in the argument to the jury of these damages. This lesson gives you an opportunity to explore the "how to" of non-economic damages, particularly damages for pain and suffering and mental or emotional distress. The lesson is designed for upper-level students in remedies, advanced torts, or trial practice courses. Students should have some basic knowledge of both tort law and evidence law. First-year students may find the lesson accessible by making use of the pop-up screens providing background on concepts and rules.

40 minutes
REM20

This lesson focuses on one of the factual inquiries underlying the legal determination of nonobviousness: the scope and content of the prior art. It assumes that you are familiar with the patentability requirement of novelty under 35 U.S.C. §102 and with the basic framework of the obviousness analysis. If you would like a review of the basic framework for determining obviousness, you may want to do the lesson on "Basic Concepts of Nonobviousness" before you complete this lesson. After completing this lesson you should have a better understanding of how to determine the scope and content of the prior art so as to assess obviousness.

30 minutes
PAT05

This lesson works through the details of patent law's novelty requirement as set out in Section 102(a) of the Patent Act. It also briefly covers Section 102(e) and inventorship. It does not deal with Section 102(b) statutory bars.

A general understanding of the nature of claims and the application process is assumed background context. The lesson can be used as supplemental preparation for class, to confirm your understanding afterwards or as a final self-test before the exam.

The Contents listing is broken down into sub-topics allowing direct access if only a specific issue is of interest. The final "Putting It All Together" section contains a number of review problems. As indicated in the "Approximate Completion Time" the various sections can also be done as stand-alone exercises

Policy & Basic Structure - approxmiately 30 minutes; Details - approximately 45 minutes; Problems - approximately 30 minutes (including the essay)
PAT02

This lessson can serve as an introduction or review of the way in which "secondary considerations" are used in assessing the nonobviousness requirement in patent law. The lesson assumes a basic familiarity with the nonobviousness doctrine. Before doing this lesson, students may wish to review the lesson dealing with Basic Concepts of Nonobviousness. Other aspects of the nonobviousness doctrine are covered in the lesson dealing with Scope and Content of the Prior Art. Students may do this lesson either before or after that lesson.

45 minutes
PAT12

In addition to the limitations imposed upon interrogations by Miranda, the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and the Sixth Amendment right to counsel also constrain law enforcement authority in the interrogation context. This lesson will discuss those additional constitutional limitations. Although it isn't necessary to have mastered the Miranda limitations at this point, some familiarity with those standards will be helpful.

50 minutes
CRMPRO21

This lesson is an analytical guide to the study of two major aspects of evidence: relevance and hearsay. The vehicle used by this guide is a step by step, nine question analysis, applicable to any admissibility of evidence problem. This lesson should help one determine whether any item of evidence is admissible under the rules of evidence pertaining to relevance and hearsay. The answers to the first four questions determine whether any item of proffered evidence is admissible under the two components of relevancy: logical and legal relevancy. If the evidence in question is a statement, then the answers to questions five through nine will determine whehter the evidence is admissible under the rules of hearsay.

1.5 hours
EVD16

This lesson reviews the threshold principles of ownership by analyzing the "works made for hire" doctrine codified in the Copyright Act of 1976. In addition to an analysis of the current Copyright Act, this lesson will review the rules and doctrine of "works made for hire" under the Copyright Act of 1909. The review of both Acts is crucial to a proper determination of copyright ownership for original works of authorship created before January 1, 1978 and for those copyrighted works created on or after January 1, 1978. Depending on the date of creation, a court will be required to analyze differing rules of law to resolve the issue of copyright ownership. The purpose of this lesson is to augment the readings and study you have already done with your professor.

Again, as this lesson is meant as a review of materials you have covered in your class with your professor, you should become familiar with the 1909 Copyright Act and the 1976 Copyright Act as amended by the Berne Convention. In particular, you should have some knowledge of the interest and expense test for determining a "work made for hire" under the 1909 Act and the Reid multifactor test for determining a "work made for hire" under the 1976 Act.

If you do not have this background, do the lesson anyway to acquaint yourself with the rules and doctrine of "works made for hire" but do not concentrate on scoring. After your initial exposure to the material, revisit the lesson at some later point to confirm your understanding of the "work made for hire" doctrine.

30 minutes
CPY07

A hundred years ago, a law professor said of the parol evidence rule, “There are few things darker than this or fuller of subtle difficulties.” Many law students who have studied the rule would agree with that assessment. Hopefully this exercise will illuminate the rule. It does so by examining the functions served by the rule, taking the user through a series of questions that can be used to resolve most issues involving the application of the rule. The Uniform Commercial Code enactment of the rule is examined in detail.

1 hour
CON06

This lesson deals with the dissociation of partners under the Revised Uniform Partnership Act (RUPA). It discusses the events that result in dissociation under Section 601 of the RUPA, whether dissociation is wrongful or not, and touches on the consequences of wrongful dissociation.

This is the first of three lessons dealing with dissociation and dissolution under the RUPA. The second lesson in the series discusses the causes of partnership dissolution and the Article 7 buyout right for dissociated partners when the partnership is not dissolved. The second lesson also covers liability issues that arise after the dissociation of a partner. The third lesson in the series discusses the consequences of dissolution--the winding up process and the payment of partner accounts.

If you intend to complete all three lessons, it would make sense to complete this lesson first.

40-55 minutes
BA09

This lesson discusses the causes of dissolution of partnerships and the Article 7 buyout right under the Revised Uniform Partnership Act (RUPA). It also discusses the liability of a dissociated partner for partnership obligations and the liability of the partnership for the post-dissociation actions of the partner. This lesson does not deal with the causes of a partner's dissociation under Section 601 of the RUPA, except as necessary to a discussion of dissolution. Dissociation is dealt with in a separate lesson. This lesson may be completed without first completing the separate lesson on dissociation. However, if you intend to do the lesson on dissociation, completing that lesson first would certainly make sense.

This lesson also does not discuss the consequences of dissolution--the winding up process and the payment of partner accounts. That topic is also dealt with in a separate lesson.

65-75 minutes
BA10

This is an introduction to the sharing of profits and losses by partners in a general partnership. The lesson has three parts: (1) a general introduction to the default rules concerning how partners share profits and losses; (2) a discussion of partnership accounts; and (3) a discussion of the distribution rules applicable when a partnership is dissolved and its business is wound up.

45 minutes
CORP16

This lesson covers the kinds of inventions that can be patented. The first section discusses how the Constitution and the federal Patent Act (specifically Section 101) define and limit those categories of innovations, including the open issues in that on-going debate. The second section offers a variety of problems ranging from the straight-forward to the more complex, permitting confirmation of understanding and practice in application.

Although the two sections build on one another, they are sufficiently independent that either can be done as a stand-alone exercise.

A general familiarity with basic patent law policy and doctrine would provide helpful background context, but neither is assumed or essential.

Section 1 - 30-40 minutes; Section 2 - 20 minutes
PAT09

This is a lesson for reviewing the emerging rights of the nonmarital child and the nonmarital father.

30 minutes
FAM07

This lesson provides both a theoretical and practical overview of the piercing the corporate veil doctrine and related theories for imposing the obligations of corporations on other legal actors such as shareholders or related corporate entities.

1 hour
CORP31

The plain view doctrine is an exception to the warrant requirement that allows an officer to seize items that she observes from a lawful vantage point, to which she has a lawful right of access, and which are immediately apparent as contraband or evidence of a crime. In this lesson, you will review both the theory and the application of the plain view doctrine.

40 minutes
CRMPRO13

This lesson examines the so-called "plain view" exception to the warrant requirement. Even though the Fourth Amendment contains a warrant requirement, the United States Supreme Court has recognized numerous exceptions to that requirement, including the plain view exception. This leson is intended for students who have studied this issue in class and wish to refine their knowledge.

45 minutes
CRMPRO05

These two exercises are offered to familiarize students with what prosecuting and defense attorneys do from the time an investigation begins until trial preparation and why they do it. Special attention is given to correspondence, pleadings, and the guilty plea. The framework for both exercises is federal practice.

1 hour
CRIM02

This lesson examines the public policy objectives driving and defining United States patent law. The first section explores the nature and logic of the regime's generally accepted core purpose - providing optimum incentives to invest in useful arts innovation. The next section discusses how that goal generates the basic doctrinal requirements for patentability (novelty, nonobviousness, utility, enablement/disclosure - patentable subject matter is covered separately in lessons on Patentable Subject Matter and Non-Obviousness). The lesson's final section concludes with a brief look at how other normative views of property entitlements affect patent public policy debate as well as client expectations.

Although some general familiarity with patent law may provide helpful background context, the lesson assumes no prior knowledge. The lesson can be used before class to prepare, afterwards to clarify/supplement class discussion or as a self-test for the final exam. And, who knows, it might even prove interesting for its own sake.

45 minutes
PAT06

This lesson is a companion tutorial to the interactive Lessonette® tutorial "Recovery of Attorney's Fees." This lesson reviews the policy debate over the American Rule vs. the English Rule. In this lesson, you can judge a debate regarding which approach to attorney's fees rules is better policy.

20-30 minutes
REM09

This lesson addresses the creation and exercise of a power of appointment. The lesson discusses the different parties involved in the creation of a power of appointment. The lesson includes a variety of problems designed to test the student's understanding of the rules governing the power of appointment.

55 minutes
WT07

This lesson presents an introduction to the doctrine that the performance of a pre-existing duty, or a promise to perform such a duty, does not constitute a sufficient consideration to make a promise binding. Through questions based on a series of hypothetical cases, underlying reasons for the doctrine are considered, as well as its ramifications in various contexts. Coverage includes: the performance of duties owed to the promise or third parties as consideration; modifications on one side of executory contracts; substituted contracts following rescission; executory accords; satisfaction; liquidated claims and offers to settle unliquidated claims.

2 to 3 hours
CON01

These two exercises are offered to familiarize students with what prosecuting and defense attorneys do from the time an investigation begins until trial preparation and why they do it. Special attention is given to correspondence, pleadings, and the guilty plea. The framework for both exercises is federal practice.

1 hour
CRIM01

Articles II through X of the Federal Rules set out substantive evidentiary tests and standards. However, a student's understanding of those tests and standards is incomplete unless the student appreciates the procedural framework within which those provisions operate. Federal Rules 104(a) and 104(b) are the fulcrum of that framework. Those subdivisions codify the distinction between competence and conditional relevance issues. The subdivisions govern such vital questions as whether the opponent may conduct voir dire in support of an objection, whether the trial judge may consider the credibility of the proponent's foundational testimony, how the trial judge instructs the jury, and whether the factual issue is ultimately submitted to the jury.

This lesson focuses on Rules 104(a) and 104(b). The first part of the lesson familiarizes the student with the key procedural differences between 104(a) and 104(b). It reviews all major facets of the problem, including the special procedures used when a preliminary fact coincides with a fact of consequence on the merits of the case. The second part of the lesson is an intensive drill giving the student extensive experience in classifying foundational facts as falling under either 104(a) or 104(b). Part two is divided into subparts, each subpart concerning a different article of the Federal Rules. Thus, there are separate subparts devoted to the foundational facts posed by the doctrines set out in Articles VI (credibility) and VII (opinion). Part two is divided into subparts to allow the professor to use the drill to directly reinforce the classroom discussion; the division of part two into subparts enables the student to do the relevant part of the drill after the professor has completed the discussion of the F.R.E. article. Hence, the professor can cover the articles and assign the subparts in the sequence which he or she believes makes the most pedagogic sense.

1.5 hours
EVD12

This Lessonette® exercise deals with the requirements for preliminary injunctive relief, and includes both temporary injunctions and temporary restraining orders. It is designed for students who have already studied this material in class, and desire to refine their understanding of the matter by applying it in various contexts.

45 minutes
REM15

This lesson explores premarital agreements, also known as antenuptial or prenuptial agreements. It contrasts traditional and contemporary views of premarital agreements, the procedural and substantive requirements for enforcement, the Uniform Premarital Agreement Act and relevant provisions of the ALI Principles of the Law of Family Dissolution. This lesson assumes you already have a basic understanding of premarital agreements.

Laws governing premarital agreements are very state-specific. This lesson provides an overview of those laws, but students should remember that the laws of a particular state are vitally important to the cases they govern.

45 minutes
FAM20

This lesson focuses on the presidential power to appoint executive branch officials. It focuses on the scope of the presidential power, congressionally imposed limits on that power, and potential infringements of the power by Congress and the judiciary. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and who wish to further refine their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM15

This lesson is an introduction to the principles governing copyright infringement. After completing this lesson, you will be familiar with the standard used to determine liability for copyright infringement. Specifically, the lesson will introduce the elements necessary to support a claim of copyright infringement, which include assessments of copying, access, probative resemblance, striking similarity, improper appropriation, and substantial similarity.

30-45 minutes
CPY11

The purpose of this CALI lesson is to guide students who are not experienced in researching private international law questions.

45 minutes
LR77

The requirement of "probable cause" is an integral part of the Fourth Amendment. The Amendment specifically provides that a warrant may not issue except on probable cause. In addition, some exceptions to the warrant requirement necessitate a finding of probable cause. This lesson examines the concept of probable cause under the Fourth Amendment. This lesson is intended for students who have studied the concept of probable cause in class and wish to refine their knowledge and understanding.

25 minutes (45 minutes with the concluding essay)
CRMPRO03

This lesson reviews the concept of probable cause as defined and applied by the United States Supreme Court. It reviews the Aguilar-Spinelli "two-prong test" as well as the "totality of the circumstances" test developed in Illinois v. Gates, 462 U.S. 213 (1983). The lesson assumes the student has read the Gates decision and discussed it in class. It attempts to enhance the student's understanding of the cases and provides opportunities for the student to apply the tests to several fact patterns.

1 hour
CRMPRO09

This tutorial will provide an overview of the regulation of commercial dog breeders pursuant to the Animal Welfare Act. This lesson is a beginner level tutorial. No prior knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act or commercial breeders or other special knowledge is needed for this lesson.

1 hour
ARL01

Note: This lesson uses Flash and is unable to be viewed on a device that does not have the Flash player installed. Scoring for this lesson is also unavailable at this time.

This lessons covers the costs and benefits of agency guidance and advice.

25 minutes
ADM08

Note: This lesson uses Flash and is unable to be viewed on a device that does not have the Flash player installed. Scoring for this lesson is also unavailable at this time.

Because so many fundamental administrative law cases involve ratemaking, a feel for this process is a useful adjunct to the study of administrative law. The program considers why we allow agencies to set prices in some markets, how agencies determine the total revenue needed by the regulated company, and how the burden of producing that revenue is allocated among different classes of ratepayers. The program focuses on classic "cost of service" ratemaking, with some brief mention of reform efforts under way in many areas.

1 hour
ADM04

This lesson provides an introduction to the doctrine of ratification. The lesson will cover what ratification is, why the doctrine developed, what acts can be ratified, who can ratify, how ratification occurs, and what are the legal effects of ratification. The lesson will also introduce you (or reintroduce you) to the related doctrine of adoption.

85 minutes
BA05

This is an overview of the ways in which wastes become designated as "hazardous wastes" under the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), emphasizing the EPA's regulations governing RCRA hazardous wastes. Students should complete the lesson on RCRA "Solid Wastes" before completing this lesson.

This lesson can serve either as an introduction to RCRA hazardous wastes or as a review of that subject after it has been covered in an Environmental Law or Hazardous Waste course. It also provides experience in reading EPA RCRA regulations.

30-45 minutes
ENV09

The federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates hazardous wastes from "cradle to grave." However, RCRA's regulatory provisions apply only to "solid wastes."

This short lesson explores the definition of "solid waste" for RCRA purposes. The lesson does not require any prior knowledge of RCRA, but it can also serve as a review of RCRA's primary trigger after that topic has been covered in an Environmental Law or Hazardous Waste course.

20 minutes
ENV08

Professors Brown and Grohman, authors of several CALI lessons on covenants, give students a framework to approach studying the material and offer real-life applications of the doctrines. They also discuss the interrelatedness of the law and explain why it's an artificial distinction (and one that complicates learning) to study property issues separate from civil procedure issues, for example.

Download:
13:05 minutes
PPL55P

This lesson will introduce you to real estate brokers and familiarize you with: 1) the traditional relationship between real estate brokers and the parties to real estate transactions; 2) the duties that arise from that relationship; and 3) the effects of the breach of that duty.

30 to 45 minutes
RE01

This lesson is designed to introduce students to the methods by which real estate brokers are compensated. Before beginning this lesson, you should complete Real Estate Brokers 1: Traditional Agency Relationships.

30 minutes
RE02

This lesson is out-of-date and has been removed from the CALI Library.

These exercises present an extended series of hypotheticals requiring the student to apply the complex language of Section 8(b)(7) of the National Labor Relations Act, regulating recognitional picketing. Questions deal with such issues as the definition of picketing, interpretation of the requirement that an object be recognitional or organizational, the impact of the contract and recognition bars under Section 8(b)(7)(C) and its provisos.

1.5 hours
LL01

This lesson is out-of-date and has been removed from the CALI Library.

These exercises present an extended series of hypotheticals requiring the student to apply the complex language of Section 8(b)(7) of the National Labor Relations Act, regulating recognitional picketing. Questions deal with such issues as the definition of picketing, interpretation of the requirement that an object be recognitional or organizational, the impact of the contract and recognition bars under Section 8(b)(7)(C) and its provisos.

1.5 hours
LL02

Expense is a significant factor in any litigation. In deciding whether a judicial remedy is worth pursuing, parties must consider the cost of obtaining that remedy. The "American Rule" provides that parties to a lawsuit ordinarily pay their own attorney's fees, unless a statute or contract provides that fees can be shifted to the opponent. As it is fundamental to the litigation landscape, you may have touched on this doctrine in a number of your law school classes.

This lesson reviews the "American Rule," and the major exceptions to that rule. The lesson focuses on rules that shift responsibility for fees to one's opponents in litigation. The first two parts of the lesson review the major exceptions to the American Rule that allow attorney's fees may be awarded as part of the judgment in a case where a statute or contract provides for this shifting of costs.

50 minutes
REM23

The purpose of this lesson is to supplement your study of money damage recoveries permitted by The Lanham Act. Damage awards for trademark infringement may receive coverage in either your Remedies course or in your Trademark or Intellectual Property courses. This lesson will serve to introduce, review, and refine the principles you have studied in these respective courses to assist you in determining when damage awards for trademark infringement will be allowed.

35 minutes
TM13

This lesson will give you some background about Regional Organizations, collections of countries, organized by region, engaged in collaborative work toward some common goal. You will learn to find the documents of some of the most important Regional Organizations on the web.

45 minutes
LR90

This lesson deals with the basics of trademark registration under Section 44 of the Lanham Act. It includes discussions of eligibility under this provision, the value of foreign registrations, issues of priority, and the necessity for use prior to and after registration. It can be used either to learn the subject or for review, but does presume general knowledge of the bases for registration under Section 1 of the Lanham Act.

45 minutes
TM21

This is the first of two of lessons about section 5 of the Securities Act of 1933.

2 hours
SEC03

This is the second and final of a series of lessons about the registration process of section 5 of the Securities Act of 1933.

45 minutes
SEC04

This Lessonette® exercise will introduce you to the categories of sources of air pollution that the Clean Air Act regulates, including stationary sources, mobile sources, and indirect sources. You will learn about the statutory definitions for each of these sources and how to distinguish among these sources.

This Lessonette can be used as an introduction to the Clean Air Act or as the start of your review of Clean Air Act regulation. You do not need any outside materials to complete this Lessonette. If you are unfamiliar with the Clean Air Act, you should complete this Lessonette BEFORE attempting the Lessonettes entitled "Clean Air Act Stationary Sources and Criteria Pollutants" and "Clean Air Act Stationary Sources and Hazardous Air Pollutants."

30 minutes
ENV10

This lesson introduces students to one of the constitutional issues that can arise as a result of environmental and natural resources regulation: regulatory takings under the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. It begins by giving students an overview of regulatory taking claims, their distinction from physical takings of private property, and some of the rules that apply in evaluating whether a regulatory taking has occurred. It then provides examples of how regulatory taking issues can arise in environmental and natural resources regulation, using the Clean Water Act's Section 404 program and the Endangered Species Act's Section 9 prohibitions as examples.

This lesson assumes that students have been exposed to regulatory taking issues in class but does not require detailed knowledge of regulatory taking law. This lesson also assumes that students are generally familiar with the federal Clean Water Act and Endangered Species Act., although it also supplies the immediately necessary information about both statutes.

45 minutes
ENV17

This lesson is designed to help the student determine the scope of protection given to a trademark. It is designed to supplement material that has been covered in the trademark law course. The determination of the scope of a mark's protection is helpful in the initial selection of a trademark, the trademark registration process, and the enforcement of the trademark. The student will review the concept of related goods by investigating the scope of trademark protection in several scenarios. Students should be familiar with how to select a trademark, register a trademark, and apply the likelihood of confusion test.

30 minutes
TM12

This lesson will teach law students and practitioners how to research and efficiently locate the rules and regulations promulgated by federal administrative agencies. This is a skill that will be important to a lawyer practicing law in any area, especially those areas for which Congress has delegated significant authority to administrative agencies. The lesson focuses on the official sources of this information: the Federal Register, the Code of Federal Regulations, and their related materials. However, the knowledge gained from this lesson should be applicable to any version of federal regulations available in a law library.

Researching Federal Administrative Regulations is organized into four subject categories: Introduction, Sources of Information, Updating Regulatory Information, and Researching Regulations. Each subject is further organized into one or two specific topics. Each topic represents an independent lesson module containing instructional text and exercises. For example, the Sources of Information category contains lesson modules for the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations. Each of these modules first presents relevant material on the use of the resource and then provides the student with a quiz.

This lesson structure allows for a variety of learning approaches. The student may systematically go through the lesson, module by module, or may select those topics of most interest and/or least knowledge. Additionally, the lesson begins with a Skills Assessment Quiz. This quiz is designed to help the user to determine a base knowledge of federal regulatory research. It covers the most essential information for the regulatory researcher and that which should be gained from the lesson. At the end of the lesson, students will have an opportunity to retake the Skills Assessment Quiz and discover how effective the modules have been in improving their knowledge.

2-3 hours
LWR06

When defendant has been unjustly enriched at plaintiff's expense, plaintiff is entitled to seek restitution. Among the rules and principles that qualify a plaintiff's right to seek restitution is the notion that a "volunteer" is not entitled to seek restitution. In this lesson, we explore the concept of "volunteer" in an effort to determine who should be regarded as a volunteer and who should not. The lesson is intended for those who have studied these issues in class and wish to further refine their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
REM43

The action for restitution allows recovery in a variety of contexts when the defendant would be "unjustly enriched" if he/she were not required to pay restitution. One of those contexts is the situation in which one person acts on behalf of another in the case of an emergency situation requiring immediate action. In this lesson, we explore the parameters of an individual's right to recover restitution for providing aid to another in an emergency situation. Of course, as an inevitable incident of this discussion, we will explore situations when recovery should be denied. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and wish to further refine their knowledge.

30 minutes
REM45

A right to restitution arises when one person is "unjustly enriched" at the expense of another. One context in which restitution is sometimes sought is when payments are made under a "mistake of fact." The situations and contexts in which mistake of fact arise are quite varied. In this lesson, we examine some of the situations and contexts, and extract general principles regarding the right to restitution for mistaken payments. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and who wish to further refine their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
REM46

This Lessonette® exercise is intended for students who have studied restitution in class, and who wish to expand and refine their knowledge of the topic. The Lessonette interactive tutorial deals with the basics of restitution (what constitutes "unjust enrichment"), and how is it measured. Little attempt is made to deal with more sophisticated aspects of restitution such as tracing, equitable liens, constructive trusts, etc. These topics are covered in another Lessonette interactive tutorial.

45 minutes
REM22

This lesson is intended to provide students with an introduction to the right to counsel at trial. It covers such issues as the right of indigents to state-provided representation, as well as the rights of non-indigents. Issues such as the right to proceed pro se and the right to the "effective" assistance of counsel will be covered in other lessons.

45 minutes
CRMPRO28

This lesson examines the Seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution, and its provision for a right to trial by jury in civil cases. The lesson examines the right from a historical perspective, as well as in terms of its modern applications. It also examines related doctrines such as the "equitable cleanup" doctrine. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and wish to refine their knowledge of this right.

45 minutes (30 minutes without the essay)
REM44

This lesson explores some of the basic issues surrounding one of our most basic constitutional rights, the right to a trial by jury. The lesson explores the issues of what constitutes a "criminal prosecution" requiring a jury trial, as well as the issues of size and unanimity requirements for a "jury" to pass constitutional muster. Issues relating to the selection and composition of the jury--the make up of the jury pool, the use of preemptory challenges, etc.--and what decisions must be made by the jury, are the subject of a separate lesson.

45 minutes
CRMPRO27

This lesson explores a copyright holder's right to control the performance and display of the related work of authorship. The lesson provides a broad overview of the rights with the exception of sound recordings, which are the subject of CALI lesson "Copyrights in Sound Recordings, CPY14." It can be used (1) as stand alone coverage of the topic, or (2) to expand or reinforce in-class discussion. The lesson requires only general familiarity with copyright law principles, in particular (1) the distinction between a work of authorship and copies of that work, and (2) basic infringement analysis.

Performance section - 1 hour plus essay; Display section 30 additional minutes, 1 hour stand alone with references back
CPY10

This lesson introduces students to the concepts of ripeness and mootness. This lesson is geared to students who have studied these concepts in class (perhaps some time ago in their constitutional law classes) and wish to delve into the subject more deeply.

45 minutes
REM30

This lesson takes a look at the treatment of damaged and destroyed goods and how the U.C.C. allocates the risk of loss for such occurrences. Since casualties to goods do occur, there must be a mechanism for determining which party will suffer the loss. The party which will suffer the loss is said to bear the risk of loss of the goods. This lesson sets out the basic rules for determining which party bears the risk of loss in sales transactions in cases where there is no breach (UCC 2-509) and examines the effect of breach on the allocation of risk (UCC 2-510).

55 minutes
CON78

This lesson provides an overview of the central role of "use" in United States trademark law. It examines how the policy justifications driving trademark law (1) justify generally requiring use to obtain and maintain trademark rights and related infringement considerations and (2) define sufficient use for those trademark law purposes. It also addresses and explains the few specific exceptions to the use requirement. The lesson assumes a basic knowledge of trademark policy, the distinctiveness classification system and infringement. The lesson can be used as an overview summary at the end of a course or foundationally before a more detailed discussion of (1) acquisition of trademark rights and the related limitations, (2) loss of those rights, or (3) the role of use in federal registration.

1 hour
TM25

This lesson was removed at the end of 2013. It is outdated but is currently being revised.

This lesson covers the basic issues and arguments in same-sex marriage litigation. However, this area of the law is changing rapidly and the most recent outcomes of the arguments are not yet included.

This lesson addresses the legal ramifications of same-sex relationships, stresses comprehension of the arguments regarding the opposite sex requirement for marriage, and includes the various schemes states have used to address the controversies. Additionally, this lesson contains material relating to transgendered individuals who marry and international perspectives. It can be used as class preparation, supplement, or review.

This lesson has been updated to reflect changes in the law through April 15, 2009.

55 minutes
FAM05

Note: This lesson uses Flash and is unable to be viewed on a device that does not have the Flash player installed. Scoring for this lesson is also unavailable at this time.

This lesson graphs a systematic way of thinking about the varying levels of intensity with which courts review agency decisions. It considers the various statutory and common law review formulas, the type of agency proceedings to which they apply, and how they are interpreted.

0.5 - 0.75 hours
ADM02

This lesson provides the basic framework for the search incident to arrest exception to the warrant and probable cause requirements the U.S. Supreme Court set forth in Chimel v. California in 1969. The lesson explores the development and operation of this exception since Chimel in three contexts: in public, in vehicles and in premises.

60-90 minutes
CRMPRO07

This lesson, part one of three lessons on searches and seizures with a warrant, addresses issuance of warrants. This involves basic principles about search and arrest warrants, who can issue them, the "preference" for warrants, and concepts of probable cause, particularity and nexus. The second lesson concerning warrants, "Searches and Seizures with a Warrant: Issuance of the Warrant 2" includes a detailed example of an application for a search warrant and the search warrant issued based on this application. These provide opportunities to identify potential shortcomings in both documents. The third lesson, "Searches and Seizures with a Warrant: Execution of the Warrant," covers what happens once the police obtain a warrant. No prior reading is recommended before completing this lesson.

45 minutes
CRMPRO22

This lesson, part two of three lessons on searches and seizures with a warrant, addresses application of the rules for issuance of warrants. A first lesson, "Searches and Seizures with a Warrant: Issuance of the Warrant 1," involves basic principles about warrants, who can issue them, the "preference" for warrants, and concepts of probable cause, particularity and nexus. This lesson includes a detailed example of an application for a search warrant and the search warrant issued based on this application. These provide opportunities to identify potential shortcomings in both documents. The third lesson, "Searches and Seizures with a Warrant: Execution of the Warrant," covers what happens once the police obtain a warrant.

1 hour
CRMPRO23

This third lesson in a three lesson set on warrants addresses execution of warrants. Two separate lessons, "Searches and Seizures with Warrants: Issuance of the Warrant 1" and "Searches and Seizures with Warrants: Issuance of the Warrant 2," cover the rules for issuing warrants and the use of these rules with an application for a search warrant and a search warrant. This third lesson treats what happens when police obtain a warrant. It examines the knock & announce requirement, the proper time and method of entry, and the property subject to search under a search warrant. The lesson provides illustrative warrants and affidavits with which you can explore the concepts of curtilage, plain view, staleness, the permissible scope and intensity of a search under a warrant, protective sweeps and searches and seizures of persons on premises where warrants are executed. It also briefly treats the degree to which searches can affect constitutional rights other than the Fourth Amendment.

75 minutes
CRMPRO24

This lesson discusses sections 16(a) and 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. It begins with a discussion of the section 16(a) reporting requirement: who must file, what they must file, and when. It then proceeds with an element-by-element discussion of liability under section 16(b) for short-swing trading profits, including a brief introduction to the complexities introduced by derivative securities. It concludes with a discussion of enforcement issues: standing, limitations, and the right to attorneys' fees.

No prior knowledge of federal securities law is assumed, but the lesson does assume a general familiarity with corporate securities and the basic structure of the corporation.

70 minutes
CORP10

This lesson explores non-capital, criminal sentencing with a particular focus on the constitutional criminal procedural issues. The lesson assumes some basic familiarity with sentencing.

45 minutes
CRMPRO16

This lesson explores the concept of service marks, and the similarities and differences between service marks and trademarks.

This lesson assumes that you have already acquired a basic familiarity with the rules that apply to marks that are used on or in connection with the offering of goods. Specifically, you should be familiar with the types of subject matter that may qualify as marks, the spectrum of distinctiveness, and the standard for determining whether a mark has been used in trade (or, for protection under the Lanham Act, in interstate commerce).

30 minutes
TM18

This lesson is a comprehensive discussion of shareholder agreements under section 7.32 of the Revised Model Business Corporation Act (RMBCA).

The lesson covers four major topics:

  • The requirements for a valid shareholder agreement under section 7.32(b).
  • The notice to subsequent purchasers of the corporation's shares required by section 7.32(c)
  • The limits on corporations whose shareholders may utilize section 7.32.
  • The ways in which a section 7.32 shareholder agreement may modify the usual corporate governance rules.
45 minutes
CORP25

Under corporate law, shareholders dissatisfied with certain extraordinary transactions, such as corporate mergers, may dissent from those transactions and require the corporation to purchase the dissenters' shares for their fair value. This lesson discusses those rights, known as dissenter's or appraisal rights. The lesson covers both Delaware law and the Model Business Corporation Act and discusses what appraisal rights are, when those rights are available to shareholders, and the procedures for enforcing appraisal rights. It does not get into the difficult questions involved in actually valuing corporate shares, and it does not discuss procedural issues that arise in appraisal litigation.

This lesson does not explain the different types of business combinations or the legal requirements for doing those transactions, including voting rights. Separate CALI lessons, "Types of Business Combinations" and "Voting Rights in Extraordinary Transactions," cover those topics. This lesson is the third in the series, and students are advised to complete those two lessons before attempting this one, unless they are already familiar with those topics.

This lesson also does not deal with fiduciary duty issues that arise in business combinations. That topic is also the subject of separate CALI lessons. Students do not need to complete those lessons before attempting this one.

1.25 hours
CORP33

This lesson examines when a shareholder's lawsuit against a corporation is derivative and when it is direct. It also examines why this distinction is important.

Then, using the provisions of the Revised Model Business Corporation Act (RMBCA), this lesson examines the procedural requirements for bringing a derivative action.

1 hour
CORP19

This lesson examines shareholder inspection rights under RMBCA Chapter 16. In particular, it examines which documents a shareholder may inspect and the requirements for a shareholder to inspect.

This lesson is a good opportunity to practice your statutory reading and interpretation skills.

35 minutes
CORP11

This lesson discusses shareholder voting rights when fundamental changes are made to their corporation--mergers, consolidations, compulsory share exchanges, sales of assets, dissolution, and amendments to the articles of incorporation. It also discusses other procedural requirements related to such transactions.

This lesson does not explain the different types of business combinations or the appraisal rights sometimes granted to shareholders when their corporations engage in such transactions. Separate CALI lessons, "Types of Business Combinations" and "Shareholder Appraisal Rights," cover those topics. This lesson is the second in the series. Students are advised to complete the first lesson before attempting this one, unless they are already familiar with the different types of business combinations.

This lesson also does not deal with fiduciary duty issues that arise in business combinations. That topic is also the subject of separate CALI lessons. Students do not need to complete those lessons before attempting this one.

1.25 hours
CORP36

This lesson discusses cumulative voting and how it differs from straight voting. It describes the mechanics of cumulative voting—how many votes each shareholder gets, how those votes may be cast, and how the result is determined. It also illustrates how cumulative voting can go awry if shareholders are not careful. Finally, it discusses several possible ways that a majority shareholder dissatisfied with cumulative voting may try to circumvent it.

1 hour
CORP18

Attorneys must conform their conduct to a wide range of rules drawn from a variety of sources. This program is designed to review these sources of law governing attorney conduct. This program is divided into three sections: exploring rules of discipline, sources of civil and criminal liabilities, and sources of control by courts and administrative tribunals. The lesson assumes some basic familiarity with common materials of study in the professional responsibility course and are best used as an adjunct to course study or a review.

1 hour per section
PR09

These lessons have been temporaily removed for revisions. Thank you for your patience. CALI


The student answers questions concerning an eye injury to 7-year-old Edwina Sprague caused by her classmate, Brad Lee. The student must identify entities against whom claims may be made and must consider theories of those claims and instructions to the jury. Also, the student has an opportunity to submit to the computer questions seeking information from a vital witness; this information bears upon instructions to the jury.

1-2 hours
TRT03

A critical issue that arises in many administrative cases is the question of constitutional standing to litigate. At its most basic, standing is the requirement that a litigant must have a sufficient interest in the outcome of the litigation in order to be entitled to sue. This lesson provides an introduction to constitutional standing issues and provides the basis for more in depth review in subsequent lessons. The lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and who wish to further refine their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM17

This lesson examines several status issues that arise in standing cases. In a prior lesson, we examined two contexts in which individuals might seek standing: taxpayer standing and citizen standing. In this lesson, we examine two other situations that may arise: the right of associations to sue on behalf of their members, and the rights of individuals to assert the interests of third parties. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and who are seeking to further refine their knowledge and grasp of the area.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM20

Article III of the United States Constitution requires a plaintiff to establish "standing" in order to sue in federal court. In addition to showing an injury-in fact, plaintiff must also show "causation" and "redressability." In other words, plaintiff must show that defendant is the "cause" of the injury, and that the injury will be redressable by a favorable judicial decision. In this lesson, we examine the requirement of causation (and, to a lesser extent, the requirement of redressability) in an attempt to determine what its means and how it is applied in particular cases. The lesson is intended for students who have studied this topic in class, and who wish to refine their knowledge of the topic.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM26

This lesson introduces the student to the doctrine and processes involved in interpreting state and federal statutes. Statutes are a critical part of every substantive area of the law, so this is important background for every law student, lawyer and judge.

30 minutes
LCS03

This lesson reviews the reasoning and holding of the landmark case of Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1 (1968) and explores the broader issues relating to investigative detentions and limited searches spawned by the Terry decision. The lesson examines when a seizure occurs, when reasonable suspicion to justify a seizure exists, the permissible scope of a Terry seizure, when officers have the authority to frisk, and the permissible scope of a frisk.

45-60 minutes
CRMPRO12

This lesson examines the "stop and frisk" exception to the warrant requirement. The lesson explores the justifications for creating that exception, the scope of the exception, and raises questions regarding the decision's extension and application. The decision is intended for students who have studied these issues in class and who wish to further refine their knowlege.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
CRMPRO06

This exercise provides a review of the liability scheme and defenses under CERCLA and briefly reviews the CERCLA cleanup process. The exercise begins when EPA discovers phenol contamination in drinking water wells of several residents of Springfield, Ames. Through a series of multiple choice questions, the student helps EPA choose a response action, identify potentially responsible parties, and decide which liable parties the agency should sue, for what damages, and under what authority. The student also helps liable parties prepare defenses and decide whether to file cross-claims or counterclaims against other liable parties. The exercise provides the student with a variety of resources to explore when the student makes those choices, including interrogatory responses, title information, newspaper articles, and a draft complaint. Many of the important statutory provisions are hypertext-linked to the questions for ease of reference.

2 hours
ENV02

This lesson covers the basics of both spousal and child support jurisdiction. It is intended as an introduction to the materials and it can also be used for review.

1 hour
FAM02

This lesson provides an overview of the history and structure of the European Union, followed by an introduction to researching European Union documents. The European Union is a truly unique structure which represents over half a century of cooperation between select nations. As the sole supranational legal order in the world, the European Union offers a truly unique model of study to legal scholars and practitioners.

1 hour
LR89

Students are placed in the role of judge and asked to rule on objections. The case is a civil action to recover damages for personal injuries sustained when an automobile driven by Plaintiff was involved in an intersection collision with an automobile driven by Defendant.

1 hour
EVD03

These lessons are best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, these lessons take a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. Each lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

55 hours
TAX100

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX101

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX102

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX103

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX104

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX105

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX106

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX107

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX108

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX109

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX110

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX111

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX112

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

30 minutes
TAX113

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX114

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX115

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX116

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX117

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX118

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX119

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX120

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX121

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX122

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX123

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX124

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX125

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX126

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX127

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

10 minutes
TAX128

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX129

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX130

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX131

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX132

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX133

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX134

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX135

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX136

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX137

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX138

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

30 minutes
TAX139

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX140

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX141

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX142

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX143

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX144

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX145

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX146

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX147

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX148

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

10 minutes
TAX149

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX150

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX151

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX152

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX153

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX154

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX155

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

35 minutes
TAX156

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX157

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX158

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX159

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX160

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX161

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX162

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX163

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX164

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX165

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

35 minutes
TAX166

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX167

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

10 minutes
TAX168

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX169

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

8 minutes
TAX170

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX171

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX172

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

30 minutes
TAX173

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX174

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

30 minutes
TAX175

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX176

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX177

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX178

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX179

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX180

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX181

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

10 minutes
TAX182

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX183

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

10 minutes
TAX184

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX185

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

10 minutes
TAX186

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX187

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX188

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX189

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX190

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX191

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

35 minutes
TAX192

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX193

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

10 minutes
TAX194

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX195

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

30 minutes
TAX196

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

10 minutes
TAX197

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX198

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX199

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX200

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX201

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

30 minutes
TAX202

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX203

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX204

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX205

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX206

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX207

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX208

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX209

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX210

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

10 minutes
TAX211

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX212

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX213

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX214

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX215

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX216

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX217

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX218

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX219

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

10 minutes
TAX220

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX221

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX222

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

10 minutes
TAX223

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX224

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

10 minutes
TAX225

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX226

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX227

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX228

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX229

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX230

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX231

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX232

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX233

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX234

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

30 minutes
TAX235

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX236

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX238

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX239

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX240

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX241

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

30 minutes
TAX242

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX243

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX244

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX245

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX246

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX247

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

35 minutes
TAX248

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX249

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX250

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

30 minutes
TAX251

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX252

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX253

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

10 minutes
TAX254

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX255

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX256

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX257

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX258

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX259

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX260

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX261

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX237

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX262

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX263

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX264

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX265

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX266

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX267

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX268

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

20 minutes
TAX269

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX270

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

10 minutes
TAX271

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

15 minutes
TAX272

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

10 minutes
TAX273

This lesson is best used after studying the material in class. Unlike many of CALI's other lessons, this lesson takes a more problem oriented approach to learning the material. The lesson provides students with additional problem sets to work through, allowing students to refine their ability to apply the Code and Regs. to a variety of situations.

25 minutes
TAX274

This lesson helps students distinguish between the two major rules that protect client confidentiality: the ethical duty of confidentiality and the evidentiary attorney-client communications privilege. The lesson examines the scope of each and the relationship between the two.

40 minutes
PR16

Although the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures, there is nothing to prevent the citizenry from waiving their constitutional rights. In this lesson, we examine the "consent" exception to the warrant requirement. The lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and wish to refine and expand their knowledge.

45 minutes
CRMPRO04

This lesson provides an overview of the historical significance of the ultra vires doctrine, its subsequent decline in importance, and its modern status.

30 minutes
CORP29

Note: This lesson uses Flash and is unable to be viewed on a device that does not have the Flash player installed. Scoring for this lesson is also unavailable at this time.

This lesson presents a graphic examination of agency decisionmaking processes designed to illustrate their basic features and to highlight the design and drafting strategies which can optimize such qualities as expertise and objectivity in administrative decisionmaking.

10 - 15 minutes
ADM01

This lesson provides students with an overview of the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Although the lesson does not assume any prior knowledge of the statute, it is nonetheless useful to test more advanced students' knowledge.

The lesson consists of five sections: 1) the scope of Title VII; 2) administrative prerequisites to private enforcement; 3) the protected classes; 4) the order and allocation of proof; and, 5) judicial relief. Each section uses varied question types to test the student's understanding. To ground the student's learning in legal authority, all answers are supported by references to statutory provisions and case law.

3 hours
EMPD06

This lesson reviews the process of tracing wrongfully diverted money or property through a series of exchanges. Students are expected to have a basic familiarity with in-specie remedies such as replevin and constructive trust. The lesson provides problems for students to consider practical evidentiary issues in locating and proving the identity of property and to practice the application of rules for tracing funds into and out of commingled accounts. The lesson will be most useful for review by students in remedies, debtor-creditor, or bankruptcy courses.

40 minutes
REM10

This lesson introduces the rules governing trademark assignments and licenses under common law and the Lanham Act. It may be used either as review or as the initial introduction to the topic.

30 minutes
TM24

This lesson reviews the various defenses to and remedies for dilution available under federal and state law. It can be used either to learn the material for the first time, or to review material already learned in class. The lesson assumes familiarity with several trademark concepts, including dilution (and the prerequisites for dilution protection) and fair use.

1 hour
TM11

This lesson has been removed for revisions due to changes in the law.

This lesson explores the definition of trademark dilution, from its origins in the early 20th century, through the current Federal Trademark Dilution Act. Attention is given to both state and federal laws on dilution, and the elements of a claim under both state and federal law.

45 minutes
TM16

This lesson covers the types of marks that are deemed eligible for protection under federal and state dilution laws. Although the focus is on eligibility under the Federal Trademark Dilution Act (Lanham Act section 43(c)), there is coverage of the different types of state dilution statutes--those based on the earlier (1964) Model State Trademark Bill (such as Massachusetts), and those based on the federal statute. The lesson also covers the significance of the term "distinctive" in the statutory scheme.

45 minutes
TM01

This lesson addresses the trademark doctrine of "exhaustion/first sale." The doctrine governs the trademark owner's continuing rights regarding authentic goods bearing the mark put into the marketplace. The lesson assumes familiarity with trademark's policy objectives, the basic "likelihood of confusion" test for infringement and "fair use," in particular nominative fair use and the problems associated with implied sponsorship. The lesson can be used (1) as an introductory exposure prior to a detailed class on the subject, (2) to reinforce understanding of basic concepts as discussed in class, or (3) as a stand-alone overview of the doctrine's core concerns and rules.

1 hour
TM14

This lesson covers the fair use and related "nominative" fair use defenses to claims of trademark infringement. It assumes basic familiarity with trademark policy, the "generic to fanciful" spectrum of distinctiveness trademark classification system, and the likelihood of confusion test for infringement. It can be used (1) as a stand-alone introduction, (2) as a supplement when time restrictions limit in-class coverage, or (3) to reinforce points made during class.

1 hour
TM07

This lesson discusses the social policy justifications for the legal protection of trademarks. It provides a general understanding of how those policy objectives derive from market economic principles as well as how they drive the core elements of trademark law. This lesson may be useful preparation for a first class on trademark law or to reinforce points made during a class on trademark policy.

30-45 minutes
TM02

This lesson is a follow up to the European Union-Trademark Basics lesson. It presents additional information concerning two topics: "Unusual" marks and Exhaustion of trademark rights (with regard to the latter, there is a comparison with U.S. law in the lesson). At a minimum, users should be familiar with U.S. trademark law and should either review the Basics lesson or be generally familiar with EU trademark law. This lesson may be best used for review and additional learning.

45 minutes
TM27

This lesson is a general introduction to resources for researching Tribunals and Truth Commissions.  The lesson will focus on online and print sources relating to tribunals and truth commissions with a specific focus on the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR).

The lesson is divided into four parts:

  • Introduction to Tribunals
  • ICTY
  • ICTR
  • Truth Commissions

The sources highlighted in this lesson is a selective list from the many sources available on this topic. For additional assistance in locating sources at Columbia's Diamond Law Library, please do not hesitate to contact the reference librarians at the Reference Desk.

45 minutes
LR83

This lesson provides an advanced exploration of patent issues under TRIPS, an important international agreement that binds most countries, including developed and developing countries. This lesson aims to provide students with information concerning pressing issues. It is appropriate for students who have completed the Introduction to TRIPS lesson, as well as students who have some prior exposure to TRIPS, such as students who have studied the agreement in a class on International IP.

45 minutes
PAT10

This lesson reviews the basic regulatory framework of the federal Toxic Substances Control Act. The lesson can serve either as a review of the statute or as an introduction to it.

45 minutes
ENV19

This lesson is a brief introduction to the four major types of corporate acquisitions: mergers, compulsory share exchanges, sales of assets, and tender offers. It includes descriptions of different types of mergers: stock-for-stock mergers, cashout mergers, and triangular mergers. It also briefly explains multi-step transactions, such as tender offers followed by cashout mergers or sales of assets followed by dissolution of the selling corporation.

The purpose of this lesson is to explain how the different types of transactions work so that students can understand the essence of each type of combination. It is intended as a prelude to discussion of the law affecting business combinations and would therefore be most useful as a preliminary introduction to course material dealing with mergers and acquisitions, done before classroom discussion begins.

This lesson does not discuss the legal requirements for doing the transactions in any detail, nor does it discuss appraisal rights arising from business combinations. Separate CALI lessons on voting and appraisal rights in business combinations cover those topics. This lesson also does not deal with fiduciary duty concerns arising in business combinations. That topic is also the subject of separate CALI lessons.

45 minutes
CORP32

This is the first of a series of lessons dealing with issues concerning how a corporation raises the money it needs to operate its business. This lesson focuses on the types of securities a corporation may issue (debt and equity) and the reasons it may choose one or the other. The lesson also introduces students to the difference between common and preferred shares and identifies differences in the approaches of Delaware and of the Model Business Corporation Act. After completing the lesson, the student should know: 1. What a corporate security is; 2. What is the legal relationship between the holder of a corporate security and the corporation that issued it; 3. The significance of return ON investment; 4. The significance of return OF investment; 5. The tax implications of different types of securities; 6. How equity securities are shown on a company's balance sheet; 7. The important types of debt securities and their characteristics; 8. The important types of equity securities and their characteristics; 9. Considerations of when to use both debt and equity in financing a corporation.

The second lesson in the series, Issuance of Shares Part I: Basic Concepts, introduces the student to the fundamental legal capital concepts associated with equity capitalization, including par value, capital and capital surplus.

The third lesson in the series, titled Issuance of Shares, Part II, is forthcoming and will address what it means when shares are determined to be fully paid, validly issued, and non-assessable. The fourth and final lesson in the series, Issuance of Shares Part III will cover share subscription agreements and preemptive rights.

75 minutes
CORP27

This lesson demonstrates how the principles of remedies are found in the UCC and provides some guidance for working with the UCC. This lesson may be run either as an introduction before the material is studied or as a review after it is studied.

30 minutes
CON49

This lesson explores the remedies that are available in UCC Article 2 for the Buyer when the Seller is in breach. We first examine the remedies when the Seller has the goods, and then when the Buyer has the goods. This lesson may be run either as an introduction before the material is studied or as a review after it is studied.

1 hour
CON50

This lesson explores the remedies that are available in UCC Article 2 for the Seller when the Buyer is in breach. We first examine the remedies when the Buyer has the goods, and then when the Seller has the goods. This lesson may be run either as an introduction before the material is studied or as a review after it is studied.

1 hour
CON48

This lesson addresses the enforcement provisions of the child custody jurisdiction statutes. It also addresses the international aspects of child custody enforcement. The lesson should be worked after completing the lesson on Child Custody Jurisdiction.

The lesson assumes that the student is familiar with the provisions of the UCCJA, the PKPA, and the UCCJEA, but does not assume knowledge of the enforcement provisions of these statutes. The lesson does not assume that the student has a great deal of exposure to the international aspects of this issue, other than perhaps a brief overview of the Hague Convention and the International Parental Kidnapping Act.

45 minutes
FAM25

This is a lesson on the equitable defense of unclean hands. The first part of the lesson is designed to introduce the basics of the concept for students before and during its study in class. The "Review" questions at the end are an aide for students who have completed their study, either through class work or this lesson. Students who want simply to review in anticipation of a final exam can go straight to the Review materials and backtrack only as necessary for understanding questions missed.

Unclean hands is one of the "conscience defenses" in equity. The conscience defenses act to bar equitable suitors whose claims are in some way morally tainted even if they are legally sound. Thus, a suitor cannot receive equitable relief if the equitable defense applies even though legal relief may still be available. Other conscience defenses include laches, estoppel, and unconscionability, which are covered in other CALI lessons.

40 minutes
REM07

This exercise is designed to give you a good working familiarity with the fixtures provisions of Revised Article 9. You can run it either as a review of the fixture provisions of Revised Article 9 or as an initial exploration of those provisions. The lesson assumes that you have a working knowledge of other Revised Article 9 concepts.

1.5 hours
CT01

This lesson will show you the basic tools for finding United Nations materials. It first gives an overview of how the United Nations is organized. It includes descriptions of each of the principal organs of the U.N. and an overview of the United Nations document numbering system. It then shows several online tools for United Nations research: the U.N.'s web site; the U.N. Documentation Centre; Official Document System; AccessUN; and UNBISNet. It ends with an introduction to a few web sites for very current information about the United Nations.

45 minutes
LR65

The subject of "unlawful delegation" of powers is an important issue in both constitutional and administrative law. Not infrequently, Congress attempts to delegate its legislative authority to an administrative agency or to the courts. Sometimes, Congress attempts to delegate judicial power to administrative agencies. In this lesson, we explore the legality of such delegations. This lesson is intended for students who have studied these issues in class, and wish to refine their knowledge.

45 minutes (25 minutes without the essay)
ADM16

This lesson deals with the "useful article" limitation on protection of pictorial, graphic and sculptural works under copyright law. It assumes a general understanding of the policy objectives of intellectual property law, works of authorship, the test for determining if a work of authorship is protectable and the basic rights afforded. The lesson can be used either as an introduction to the exclusion or to supplement or reinforce in-class coverage.

1 hour, including essay (approx. 15 minutes)
CPY15

This lesson explores the concept of utility as a condition for patentability under 35 U.S.C. § 101, The lesson can serve either as an introduction to the topic or as a review after covering the material in class. Although the fundamental concepts in this lesson are not difficult, the optional essay explores a particularly challenging topic.

30 minutes (45 min. with optional essay)
PAT01

This is a lesson that introduces the basics of valuation. The lesson teaches about moving money through time using rates of interest or discount, and the use of rates and of price/earnings ratios to value businesses.

The lesson does not assume any economic knowledge. If you already know the basics of valuation, then you should switch to the lesson on the Capital Asset Pricing Model.

2 hours
CORP34

This lesson is a review of visitation and relocation issues. The lesson can be used to introduce or review these topics. Students should be familiar with basic principles of custody determinations.

The lesson contains twenty questions, three of which are essay questions.

30 minutes
FAM08

This lesson provides an introduction to voting trusts and voting agreements—what they are, how they work, and why you might choose one over the other. In particular, this lesson examines the statutory provisions found in the Model Business Corporation Act (MBCA) that govern voting trusts (Section 7.30) and voting agreements (Section 7.31). In addition to the substantive material, it is intended to provide the student with an opportunity to hone their skills reading and interpreting statutes.

50 minutes
CORP13

A contract can contain many different types of express and implied terms. Express and implied warranty terms are the subject of this lesson. When parties contract for the sale of goods, they have certain expectations about the goods to be sold. These expectations form the basis of warranties. That is, what has the seller agreed to sell?

40 minutes
CON28

This lesson provides students in a Water Law, Natural Resources, or Advanced Property with a basic review of the subject of water law and the two main water law systems in the United States. The lesson assumes that students are familiar with the subject of water law in general, the two main systems of water law in the United States, and the basic rules for each. Students who are less familiar with these topics should be advised that information about the law is generally presented in the feedback to questions, not in the questions themselves.

The lesson consists of 15 questions and should take about 30-45 minutes to complete. Students may want to complete this lesson BEFORE attempting other water law lessons in the CALI library.

30-45 minutes
ENV22

This lesson provides a review of the doctrine of prior appropriation, the water law system that dominates in the western part of the United States. It is intended for students that have already studied prior appropriation as part of a Water Law, Natural Resources, or Advanced Property course.

Students may want to complete the CALI lesson entitled "Water Law Basics: Overview of Surface Water Law in the United States" before starting this lesson.

This lesson consists of 15 questions.

30-45 minutes
ENV24

Who has the right to pump and use ground water -- the water in underground aquifers? The various states in the United States have used a variety of rules to establish rights in ground water. As a practical matter, some of these rules have created problems because states didn't recognize that ground waters and surface waters are often connected.

This lesson provides a review of the five major doctrines that states have employed to decide who has what rights in ground water. It is intended to serve as a review of these doctrines for students who have studied ground water rights as part of a Water Law, Property, or Advanced Property course. The lesson consists of 15 questions.

30-45 minutes
ENV26

Riparianism is the system of water law used in most eastern states in the United States to govern property rights in water. This lesson provides a review of the basic concepts of the doctrine of riparianism for students in Water Law or Property classes. It covers both common law riparianism and regulated riparianism.

This lesson consists of 15 questions.

30-45 minutes
ENV23

Equitable apportionment is the water law doctrine that governs the U.S. Supreme Court's allocation of interstate waters (usually interstate rivers) between or among states. This lesson provides a review of the equitable apportionment doctrine for students who have studied this doctrine in a Water Law, Advanced Property, or Natural Resources course. Students should already have studied the doctrine and be familiar with the main U.S. Supreme Court decisions in this area. In addition, students should be familiar with the basic law of both prior appropriation and riparianism before completing this lesson.

30-45 minutes
ENV27

Water law is dominated by state law. However, one important federal law exception to this general principle are federal reserved rights -- water rights retained by the federal government when it sets aside federal land for particular purposes, such as an Indian reservation or national park.

This lesson provides a review of federal reserved rights for students who have covered that doctrine in a Water Law, Natural Resources Law, or Advanced Property course. Students should already be familiar with federal reserved rights in general and the Winters doctrine in particular. The lesson emphasizes the Winters doctrine and federal reserved rights for tribal reservations, but it also covers the other kinds of federal reserved rights.

45 minutes
ENV28

This lesson looks at the modern form of riparian rights, known as regulated riparianism, through the lens of Florida's Water Resources Act. It provides a brief review of the traditional common-law law riparian regime for water rights, then explores the reasons that eastern states have chosen to switch to regulated riparianism and some of the details of the Florida water law system.

Students undertaking this lesson should be familiar with common-law riparianism and its weaknesses. Some familiarity with the Florida approach is helpful but not necessary.

30-45 minutes
ENV29

While most of the states in the country choose between the water law doctrines of prior appropriation and riparian rights, California applies both. This approach to state water law is called, appropriately, the California system.

This lesson gives a brief overview of the California system of water rights. California was the first state to attempt to blend prior appropriation and riparian rights. However, its example can be considered instructive for the modern evolution of water law, because more and more states are trying to blend the best parts of both systems.

45 minutes
ENV30

One of the more interesting doctrines in Water Law is the public trust doctrine, which preserves public rights in the nation's waters and limits states' abilities to destroy the public's interests in these waters. This lesson provides a review of the basic contours of the public trust doctrine in American law, focusing on: (1) the federal law governing state ownership of the beds and banks of navigable waters; (2) the U.S. Supreme Court's 1892 decision in Illinois Central Railroad v. Illinois; and (3) state variations in, and expansions of, their state common-law public trust doctrines in the 20th and 21st centuries.

This lesson is intended as a review for students who have already studied the public trust doctrine in a Water Law, Property, Natural Resources, or Advanced Property course. In particular, students should already be familiar with the Illinois Central decision. The lesson consists of 15 questions.

30-45 minutes
ENV25

This exercise provides a review of the wetlands protection provisions of the Clean Water Act. The exercise focuses on several land development proposals in Midway, Ames that may adversely impact wetlands. Through a series of multiple choice questions, the student advises the developers whether their proposed developments would require a permit under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act or a state wetlands protection law, and whether a general permit might authorize the proposed developments. In addition, the student examines the procedures that the Corps and EPA use when they issue a Clean Water Act Section 404 permit, the standards for approval of a permit, and the conditions that might be placed on the permit. Finally, the student explores the takings implications that may arise when the Corps denies a developer a wetlands permit. The exercise provides the students with maps of the proposed developments and a copy of a permit application for one of the development proposals. Many of the important statutory provisions are hypertext-linked to the questions for ease of reference. Timing, scoring and hardcopy printout features are available.

2 hours
ENV03

Prof. Lind teaches Copyright, Trademark, Entertainment Law, Mass Media law, and Museum and Art Law at Southwestern. He is also the author of several CALI lessons on copyright and trademark law. In this podcast, he explains the confusion that arises from the use of the term "song." Prof. Lind also discusses the terms "author" and "sound recording" and their implications for protection under the U.S. Copyright Act. In this podcast Prof. Lind analyzes several performances (a vocalist and comedy improv troupe) and discusses whether their performances are protected by Copyright Law and the role of the Bootlegging statutes.

Download:
20:15 minutes
CPY21P

This lesson reviews the definition of "director's conflicting interest transaction" in subchapter F of chapter 8 of the Revised Model Business Corporation Act. It focuses on the definition and does not discuss judicial review of director's conflicting interest transactions under subchapter F. That is dealt with in a companion lesson, Judicial Review of Director's Conflicting Interest Transactions under the Model Business Corporation Act.

This lesson begins with an introduction to the general structure of the statutory definition, and then discusses the individual elements of the definition in greater detail. It discusses the persons whose interest in a transaction can create a conflicting interest for a director, the types of interests that are covered, and the requirement that the director know of the interest. The lesson also discusses the requirement that the transaction involve the corporation, its subsidiary, or a controlled company.

1 hour
CORP07

Syndicate content