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  • This Subject Area Index lists all CALI lessons covering Corporations.
  • The Business Associations & Corporations Outline allows you to search for terms of art that correspond to topics you are studying to find suggestions for related CALI Lessons.



This lesson provides an introduction to the doctrine of ratification. The lesson will cover what ratification is, why the doctrine developed, what acts can be ratified, who can ratify, how ratification occurs, and what are the legal effects of ratification. The lesson will also introduce you (or reintroduce you) to the related doctrine of adoption.

Section 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

This lesson discusses sections 16(a) and 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. It begins with a discussion of the section 16(a) reporting requirement: who must file, what they must file, and when. It then proceeds with an element-by-element discussion of liability under section 16(b) for short-swing trading profits, including a brief introduction to the complexities introduced by derivative securities. It concludes with a discussion of enforcement issues: standing, limitations, and the right to attorneys' fees.

Shareholder Agreements Under RMBCA Section 7.32

This lesson is a comprehensive discussion of shareholder agreements under section 7.32 of the Revised Model Business Corporation Act (RMBCA).

The lesson covers four major topics:

  • The requirements for a valid shareholder agreement under section 7.32(b).
  • The notice to subsequent purchasers of the corporation's shares required by section 7.32(c)
  • The limits on corporations whose shareholders may utilize section 7.32.
  • The ways in which a section 7.32 shareholder agreement may modify the usual corporate governance rules.

Shareholder Appraisal Rights

Under corporate law, shareholders dissatisfied with certain extraordinary transactions, such as corporate mergers, may dissent from those transactions and require the corporation to purchase the dissenters' shares for their fair value. This lesson discusses those rights, known as dissenter's or appraisal rights. The lesson covers both Delaware law and the Model Business Corporation Act and discusses what appraisal rights are, when those rights are available to shareholders, and the procedures for enforcing appraisal rights.

Shareholder Derivative Actions

This lesson examines when a shareholder's lawsuit against a corporation is derivative and when it is direct. It also examines why this distinction is important. Then, using the provisions of the Revised Model Business Corporation Act (RMBCA), this lesson examines the procedural requirements for bringing a derivative action.