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1L - First Year Lesson Topics

Battery Puzzlers

Battery Puzzlers is one of two lessons available from CALI on the intentional tort of battery. The other lesson Battery Basics, is designed for students who will spend little time on battery in their classes or are uncomfortable with their understanding of the tort. It is designed to provide a solid understanding of battery. This lesson, Battery Puzzlers, is for students who are already familiar with the tort and who want to deepen their understanding and analysis of battery.

Battle of the Forms (UCC 2-207)

This lesson deals with the problem created by the Battle of the Forms. At common law, the mirror image rule requires an acceptance to be exactly like the offer. The rule is reversed under the Uniform Commercial Code, however. Under UCC § 2-207, an acceptance is still an acceptance even though it states different or additional terms from the offer. This lesson will explore the effect of such different or additional terms and when they are operative. This lesson can be worked as an introduction to the Battle of the Forms or as a review.

Bilateral and Unilateral Contracts

Traditional contract law classifies contracts into bilateral and unilateral contracts. Bilateral contracts are those involving promises made by all parties, whereas unilateral contracts involve promises made by only one of the parties. This lesson explores the distinction between bilateral contracts (where both parties make promises) and unilateral ones (where only one party makes a promise) and the effect on the obligations of the parties resulting from the classification.

Buffalo Creek: A Game of Discovery (Initial Disclosure Version)

This lesson has been temporaily removed for revisions. Thank you for your patience. CALI

Effective December 1, 2006, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure were amended to reflect changes in discovery resulting from the electronic storage of information. CALI's lessons do not yet reflect these amendments. As each lesson is revised to reflect the amended rules, the lesson's catalog description will be updated to enable students and faculty to easily tell which lessons include the amended rules.

California Primary Sources

This lesson will introduce you to all of the types of primary sources you will encounter when researching California law. Topics include the Constitution, Statutes and Codes, administrative law, court system, and researching cases in California. No prior knowledge of California legal materials is required.


This exercise provides an overview of the concept of causation. Factual cause is distinguished from legal cause, and causation in general from mens rea and attempt. Specific issues covered include simultaneous causes, different victim, different manner, and different injury.

Causation in Fact

This exercise begins by illustrating the distinction between cause in fact and legal or proximate cause and then utilizes questions intended to familiarize the student with the but for or sine qua non test and the substantial factor test. The exercise also covers issues relating to concurrent cause dilemmas and problems in identifying which harm was caused to the plaintiff by multiple negligent defendants.