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  • This Subject Area Index lists all CALI lessons covering Contracts.
  • The Contracts Outline allows you to search for terms of art that correspond to topics you are studying to find suggestions for related CALI Lessons.

Contracts

The Parol Evidence Rule

A hundred years ago, a law professor said of the parol evidence rule, "There are few things darker than this or fuller of subtle difficulties." Many students and professionals who have studied the rule would agree with that assessment. Hopefully this exercise will illuminate the rule. It does so by examining the functions served by the rule, taking the user through a series of questions that can be used to resolve most issues involving the application of the rule. The Uniform Commercial Code enactment of the rule is examined in detail.

The Pre-Existing Duty Rule, Contract Modification, and Accord & Satisfaction

This lesson presents an introduction to the doctrine that the performance of a pre-existing duty, or a promise to perform such a duty, does not constitute a sufficient consideration to make a promise binding. Through questions based on a series of hypothetical cases, underlying reasons for the doctrine are considered, as well as its ramifications in various contexts. Coverage includes: the performance of duties owed to the promise or third parties as consideration; modifications on one side of executory contracts; substituted contracts following rescission; executory accords; satisfaction; liquidated claims and offers to settle unliquidated claims.

Reliance Damages

This lesson explores the remedy of reliance, which can be available both 1) where there is no contract and 2) where there is a contract and the non-breaching party chooses an alternative to the expectancy measure of damages.

Rescission

Rescission is one of the ways in which contractual duties are discharged. This lesson discusses mutual rescission, rescission by one of the parties, and rescission as a remedy used by a court.

Restitution

This lesson explores the remedy of restitution, which can be available both where there is no contract and where there is a contract and the non-breaching party chooses an alternative to the expectancy measure of damages.

Risk of Loss

This lesson takes a look at the treatment of damaged and destroyed goods and how the U.C.C. allocates the risk of loss for such occurrences. Since casualties to goods do occur, there must be a mechanism for determining which party will suffer the loss. The party which will suffer the loss is said to bear the risk of loss of the goods. This lesson sets out the basic rules for determining which party bears the risk of loss in sales transactions in cases where there is no breach (UCC 2-509) and examines the effect of breach on the allocation of risk (UCC 2-510).

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