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1L - First Year Lesson Topics

Warranties

A contract can contain many different types of promises, made up of both express and implied terms. Express and implied warranty terms are the subject of this lesson. For instance, when parties contract for the sale of goods, they have certain expectations about the goods to be sold. These expectations form the basis of warranties that arise under U.C.C. Article 2. That is, what has the seller agreed to sell?

Water Law Basics: Rights in Ground Water

Who has the right to pump and use ground water -- the water in underground aquifers? The various states in the United States have used a variety of rules to establish rights in ground water. As a practical matter, some of these rules have created problems because states didn't recognize that ground waters and surface waters are often connected.

This lesson provides a review of the five major doctrines that states have employed to decide who has what rights in ground water.

Water Law: The California System

While most of the states in the country choose between the water law doctrines of prior appropriation and riparian rights, California applies both. This approach to state water law is called, appropriately, the California system.

This lesson gives a brief overview of the California system of water rights. California was the first state to attempt to blend prior appropriation and riparian rights. However, its example can be considered instructive for the modern evolution of water law, because more and more states are trying to blend the best parts of both systems.

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